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BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



INSECTS OF SAMOA 

AND OTHER SAMOAN TERRESTRIAL 
ARTHROPODA 



PART II. HEMIPTERA 

FASC. 3. Pp. 81-162 

HETEROPTERA 

By W. E. CHINA, B.A. (Cantab.) 

WITH TWENTY-EIGHT TEXT-FIGURES 





LONDON : 

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

SOLD AT 

The Bbitish Mdsbum (NATtTBAL Hibtoby), CEOMWEtt Road, S.W.7 

AND BY 

B. QuABiTCH, Ltd. ; Dtjlad & Co., Ltd. ; and The Oxfoed Uotvbbbity Psbbb. 

1930 

Isswd %%th July, 1930.] {Price Five SUlUngt. 



INSECTS OF SAMOA 

AND OTHER SAMOAN TERRESTRIAL 
ARTHROPODA 

Although a monograph, or series of papers, dealing comprehensively with 
the land arthropod fauna of any group of islands in the South Pacific may be 
expected to yield valuable results, in connection with distribution, modification 
due to isolation, and other problems, no such work is at present in existence. 
In order in some measure to remedy this deficiency, and in view of benefits 
directly accruing to the National Collections, the Trustees of the British 
Museum have undertaken the publication of an account of the Insects and other 
Terrestrial Arthropoda collected in the Samoan Islands, in 1924-1925, by 
Messrs. P. A. Buxton and G. H. E. Hopkins, during the Expedition of the 
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine to the South Pacific. 
Advantage has been taken of the opportunity thus afforded, to make the studies 
as complete as possible by including in them all Samoan material of the groups 
concerned in both the British Museum (Natural History) and (by courtesy of 
the authorities of that institution) the Bishop Museum, Honolulu* 

It is not intended that contributors to the text shall be confined to the 
Museum Staff or to any one nation, but, so far as possible, the assistance of the 
leading authorities on all groups to be dealt with has been obtained* 

The work is divided into nine " Parts " (see p. 3 of wrapper), of which 
the first eight are subdivided into " Fascicles." Each of the latter, which 
appear as ready in any order, consists of one or more contributions. On the 
completion of the systematic portion of the work it is intended to issue a 
general survey (Part IX), summarising the whole and drawing from it such 
conclusions as may be warranted. 

A list of Fascicles already issued will be found on pp. 3 and 4 of this wrapper. 

E. E. AUSTEN, 

Keeper of Entomology. 

British Museum (Natural History), 
Cromwell Road, S.W.7. 



INSECTS OF SAMOA 




Part II. Fasc. 3 



H E M I P T E R A— H ETEROPTERA 



By W. E. China, B.A. Cantab. 



(With 28 Text-figures.) 



The present fascicle deals with the whole of the Heteroptera with the exception 
of the Miridae, which are being worked out by Dr. H. H. Knight, and the aquatic 
families, which have already been dealt with by Prof. Teiso Esaki in Fascicle 2. 

Previous to Esaki's paper only five species of Heteroptera had been 
recorded from the Samoan Islands. The first of these was the Coreid Mictis 
crux described by Dallas {List Hemipt. Het. Brit. Mus., II, p. 405) in 1852, when 
the group was known as the Navigators Islands. The second was Noliphus 
discopterus, a new Coreid species described by Stal in the third volume (p. 87) 
of his splendid Enumeratio Hemipterorum, in 1873. In the fourth volume of 
the same work (p. 146, 1874), Stal described still another Samoan species, the 
Lygaeid Bedunia insularis. Thirty years later Schouteden (Wytsm. Gen. Ins., 
xxiv, p. 31, 1904) recorded, without remark, the fourth species Calliphara 
bifasciata A. White, which was already known to occur in the " South Sea 
Islands." In the same work Schouteden also recorded Coleotichus excellens 
Walk, as occurring in Samoa, but it is most probable that this record actually 
referred to the fifth species, which Schouteden (Notes Leyden Mus., xxix, 
p. 207, 1908) later described from Samoan material under the name Coleotichus 
buloivi. 

The present contribution deals with sixty species representing forty-six 
genera and one subgenus, so that, including the ten aquatic species recorded by 
Esaki, the known Samoan Heteropterous fauna (apart from Miridae), amounts 
to seventy species belonging to fifty-one genera. As shown in the following 
table, these figures are not unlike those of the Imown Heteropterous fauna of 



n. 3 



1 



82 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



the Fiji Islands, which has, fortunately, been monographed by Kirkaldy {Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxiii, pp. 345-381, 1908). 



Comparison of Fijian and Samoan Hetbropterous Faunae.* 





















Common 








Fiji. 


Samoa. 


Fiji 


only. 


ksamoa 
only. 


to Fiji and 
Samoa. 


Total. 


Family. 


gen. 


sp. 


gen. 


sp. 


gen. 


sp. 


gen. 


sp. 


gen. 


sp. 


gen. 


sp. 


Plataspidae .... 


1 


1 


1 


1 










1 


1 


1 


1 


Cydnidae ..... 


1 


1 


1 


1 










1 


1 


1 


1 


Pentatomidae .... 


11 


12 


7 


8 


4 


6 




2 


7 


6 


11 


14 


Coreidae ..... 


7 


7 


7 


8 


1 


3 


1 


2 


6 


6 


8 


11 


Dysodiidae .... 


4 


5 


5 


5 


1 


5 


2 


5 


3 




6 


10 


Berytidae ..... 


1 


1 


1 


1 










1 


1 


1 


1 


Lygaeidae .... 


13 


20 


12 


18 


6 


13 


4 


10 


8 


8 


18 


31 


Colobathristidae 


1 


1 






1 


1 










1 


1 


Pyrrhocoridae .... 


1 


2 


1 


2 










1 


2 


1 


2 


Tingitidae . . . 








1 


1 


5 


5 




1 









b 




1 


2 






1 


2 










1 


2 


Reduviidae .... 


10 


12 


7 


11 


4 


7 




6 


6 


5 


11 


18 


Nabidae . . . . . 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 


2 




1 


2 


2 


3 


5 


Cimicidae ..... 


? 


? 


1 


1 








1 


? 


? 


1 


1 


Anthocoridae .... 


1 


1 






1 


1 










1 


1 


Gerridae . . 


2 


2 


2 


5 


1 


2 




5 


1 




3 


7 


Veliidae ..... 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 




1 


1 




1 


2 


Gelastocoridae .... 






1 


1 








1 






1 


1 


Notonectidae .... 






1 


3 








3 






1 


3 


Totals 


62 


75 


51 


70 


26 


48 


13 


38 


38 


32 


77 


118 



Of the forty-eight existing Heteropterous families, only twenty (including 
Miridae) have so far been recorded from Fiji and Samoa, but these include all 
the more important groups. The apparent absence of the Gelastocoridae, 
Notonectidae and Cimicidae from Fiji, and of the Anthocoridae, Henicocephalidae 
and Colobathristidae from Samoa, will no doubt be disproved by further col- 
lecting, although it is possible that the last two families may actually be absent 
from Samoa. The apparent absence of the Corixidae from both faunae is 
remarkable, and it is interesting to recall that this family is also represented by 
only two species in New Zealand, where, according to Dr. J. G. Myers, suitable 
aquatic conditions are not abundant. 
' - * Excepting Miridae. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



83 



It will be noticed from the table that although the total number of species 
in each fauna is approximately the same, the number of genera represented in 
Fiji is far superior to that in Samoa, while there are twice as many Fijian genera 
which do not occur in Samoa as there are Samoan which do not occur in Fiji. 

It would be unwise to draw definite conclusions from scanty material 
accumulated during a few years of haphazard collecting, but on the whole the 
table tends to show that the Samoan fauna is actually an impoverished replica 
of that of Fiji. Specific endemism is, however, comparatively high, twenty- 
eight out of the total of seventy species being apparently peculiar to Samoa, 
while three endemic genera and one subgenus, also occur. 

The following table indicates the distribution of the Samoan species dealt 
with in this paper : — 





"'3 


_3 


'3 




m 


other localities. 




> 


"o 
U 


s 
H 


a 


S 




Family Plataspidae. 














1. Brachyplatys pacificus Dall. 


X 


X 


X 




X 


Tonga, Wallis Is., Marianne 
lb., dnu, Austro-unenuai 
Subregion. 


Family Cydnidae. 














2. Geotomus pygmaeus Dall. 


X 


X 


X 




X 


Tahiti, Raiatea, Hawaii, 
and Oriental Region. 


Family Pentatomidae 














3. Calliphara bifasciata White 


X 


X 


X 




X 




4. Coleotichus billowi Schout. 


X 


X 


X 








5. Coleotichus sordidus Walk. 




X 


X 




X 


Is. of Pines, Marquesas, 
Society Is . , Ne w Hebrides . 


6. Cantheconidea cyanacantha Stal 


X 


X 


X 




X 




7. Platynopus melacanthus Boisd. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Society Is., and Austro- 
Oriental Subregion. 


8. Pegala biguttula Hagl. 




X 






X 




9. Glaucias samoanus, sp. no v. 




X 










10. Piezodorus rubrofasciatus F. 




X 






X 


Tahiti, Raiatea, and whole 


Family Coreidae. 












Palaeotropical Region. 












11. MicHs profanaF. .... 


X 


X 


X 




X 


Friendly Is. and Austro- 
Oriental Subregion. 


12. Leptoglossus australis F. 




X 






X 


Tahiti, Bora Bora, and 
Austro - Oriental Sub- 
region. 


13. Leptocorisa varicornis ¥ . . 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Tonga and whole Oriental 












Region. 



84 



INSECTS OP SAMOA. 





Savaii. 


Upolu. 


Tutuila. 


Manua Is. 


Fiji Is. • 


other Localities. 


14. Noliphus discopterus Stal 




X 










15. Melanacanthus margineguttatus Dist. 




X 








New Zealand and N. Aus- 


16. Riptortus insularis, sp. nov. 


X 


X 






X 


tralia. 


Riptortus insularis obscurus var. nov. 






X 








17. Riptortus iutuilensis, sp. nov. . 






X 




X 




18. Leptocoris insularis Kirk. 




X 






X 




Family Dysodiidae. 














19. Mezira membranacea F. . . 


X 


X 


X 


X 




Whole Oriental Subregion. 


20. Chiastoplonia pygniaea, sp. nov. 






X 








21. Pictinus pacificus, s]). nov. 


)<; 












22. Ctenoneurus satnoanus, sp. nov. 














23. Carventus kirkaldyi, sp. nov. . 




X 










Family Berytidae. 














24. Protacanthus pacificus, sp. nov. 




X 






X 




Family Lygaeidae. 














25. PytrJiobaphus laucurus F. . ■ . 




X 






X 


Austro-Oriental Subregion. 


ii t^oUovvt'ftUo itvum y o|j. nuv. 


" Sa 


moa 










V/ l-rVn'YiinQt ^^t hit Q 'vn nv'ioP'i~iZ! Ss^a 1 


X 


X 


X 




X 


Gruam Is. Ascension Is. 














and Austro-Oriental Sub- 














region. 








X 






New Hebrides. 


29. Germalus samoanus, sp. nov. . 




X 


X 


X 






OU. Vri^l llVUjbiiO UUjJyiUttty top. liU V . 


X 


X 










31. J^cocroinpus Jzall^rsx. sp. nov. . 






X 








32. Clerada apicicornis Sign. 




X 






X 
















XXUiULiUUlL'tli xxc^iun. 


oo. urtliasa pacyicO' otal . 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















X 




X 




X 


"Nliiie ^Savaffp 1;^ \ 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Tahiti, Raiatea, Hawaii, 












New Zpflland and N S 














Wales. 






X 


X 




X 


Oripnt,al T?,P0iOTi 


37. Ortliaca v&ntralis, sp. nov. 




X 


X 








38. OrtJiaca puhcrula, sp. nov. . . 


X 


X 










39. Bedunia insularis Stal . 


X 


X 


X 








40. Bryanella longicornis, sp. nov. . 


X 


X 










41. Aphanus insularis K.ivk. . 




X 






X 




42. Cligenes swezeyi, sp. nov. . . 


X 




X 








Cligenes swezeyi var. major, nov. 




X 











HEMIPTBRA— HBTBROPTERA. 



85 





Savaii. 


Upolu. 


Tutuila. 


Manua Is. 


Fiji Is. 


other Localities. 


Family Pyrrhocoridae. 














43. Dysdercus insularis Stal 


X 


X 


X 




X 


Manono (Samoa). 


4-4- I IJi Qn i^-v/^j t Q 'J iwni^/^ o 

j:^. ■L^ffcUfyfL/Uo C/HUtLLtUtfltTlS Otai 


X 


X 


X 




X 


Niue (Savage Is.). 


Family Tingitidae. 














45. Idiocy sta hacker i, sp. nov. 




X 










Family Reduviidae. 














46. Gardena pacifica Kirk. . 




X 






X 




47. Gardena geniculata, sp. nov. 




X 










48. Luteva insolida B. White 




X 








Marquesas, Hawaii. 


49. Luteva sicbaequalis M. and M. . 




X 








Philippines. 


50. Empicoris rubroniaculatus Blackb. . 


X 








X 


Tropical and Subtropical 














America, Madeira, Aus- 














tralia, New Zealand, and 














Hawaii. 


51. Empicoris, sp. . . . 




X 










52. Empicoris (Dictynna) nitidicollis, sp. 














nov. ..... 




X 










53. Polytoxus similis, sp. nov. 




X 


X 




X ? 




54. Sastrapada hopkinsi, sp. nov. . 




X 














X 






X 




56. Peregrinator hiannulijpes Montr. 




X 






X 


C. America, Reunion, Rodri- 














guez, Philippines, New 














Caledonia. 


TvCITVIiItT nJAXJTTlA'C 

X/ ctXllliy X> AoiJJAili. 














57. Arhela costalis Stal 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




Arbela costalis var. flavicollis, nov. . 


X 




X 








58. Reduviolus capsiformis Germ. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Cosmopolitan. 


59. Reduviolus annulipes, sp. nov. 


X 


X 










Family Cimicidae. 














60. Cimex hemipterus Fabr. . 




X 








Ethiopian, Mascarene, 














Oriental, and Neotropical 














Regions. 



An analysis of the above table shows that the Samoan fauna is composed 
of five main groups of species made up as follows : — 

1. Species of Holotropical or Palaeotropical distribution ..... 6 

2. Species of Oriental or Austro-Oriental distribution * . . . . .10 



* The Austro-Oriental region as here understood includes the lesser Sunda Islands east of 
Wallace's line, Celebes, Gilolo, Sula Is., Bouru, Ceram, Aru, N. Guinea, N. Australia and Queens- 



86 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



3. Species restricted to Fiji and Samoa . , . . .11 

4. Provisionally endemic species ......... 28 

5. Species of general distribution in the Pacific ....... 4 

Considering these in turn, most of the holotropical species have probably 
been introduced within historical times through the agency of man. Cimex 
hemipterus has been carried by man himself, and Clerada apicicomis, which is 
apparently an inquiline in the nests of various rodents, has probably been 
carried by rats and mice. The widely distributed Oriental and Austro- Oriental 
species are probably of very early origin, and have migrated from the west 
either over a former land connection which existed during late Mesozoic times 
between Papua and New Zealand, or later by the agency of winds and currents, 
over a long j^eriod of time. The comparative richness of the Fijian and Samoan 
fauna, and the number of closely allied endemic forms to which these austro- 
oriental species have obviously given rise, strongly favours the existence of a 
land connection, at least over the greater part of the distance, and migration 
doubtless took place by both these methods. A considerable number of those 
species which are restricted to Fiji and Samoa have been directly evolved from 
the Austro-Oriental migrants, and must have originated in the Fijian group, 
whence they have migrated to Samoa. That the endemic Samoan species 
should appear to be so numerous is j^robably the result of insufficient knowledge 
of the Fijian fauna, but it may be accounted for in part by the assumption that 
a number of western migrants arrived by a course to the north or to the south 
of Fiji. The occurrence of the common and widely distributed oriental Mezira 
membmnacea in Samoa and its absence from Fiji favours this assumption. 

There is, too, some evidence from the distribution of the Hemiptera that 
the fauna of both groups of islands received some migrants from the south, 
probably from New Zealand. The Dysodiidae (Aradidae sens lat.), which are 
typically forest insects, and reach their greatest development in South and 
Central America, also occur very abundantly in New Zealand, although the 
species are as yet undescribed. It is, indeed, quite probable that the New 
Zealand Dysodiidae have been derived from Patagonia, and the fact that this 

land, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Is., New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and Loyalty Is. The 
Philippines, except Palawan, are regarded as a distinct subregion. The Malaysian subregion 
includes the Malay Peninsula south of 10° N., Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Palawan, and adjacent 
islands. The Indo-Chinese subregion includes the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Burma, 
Tenasserim, Assam, Siam, Cambodia, Cochin China, Laos, Annam, Tonkin, Southern China, 
Hainan and Formosa. 



HEMIPTEEA— HETEROPTBRA. 



87 



family is extraordinarily well represented in Fiji and Samoa by no less than 
ten species is very suggestive. 

The following table showing the world-wide specific distribution of the 
Samoan genera will give some idea of the relationships of the Samoan fauna. 
It should be remembered, however, that our knowledge of the distribution of 
the Heteroptera is still fragmentary, and that the region in which a genus reaches 
its greatest development is not necessarily the place of origin. Generally 
speaking, the table clearly shows that the Samoan fauna is most closely related 
to that of the Austro-Oriental subregion, and has obviously been derived from it. 

The numbers of Polynesian species are printed in heavy type for easy 
comparison. 



Samoan Genera. 


Hawaiian. 


Australasian. 


Oriental. 


African. 


Palaearctic. 


American. 


New Zealand. 


Australian. 


Polynesian. 


Austro- Oriental. 


Malaysian. 


oi 
ft 

.ft 

Ph 


Indo-Chinese. 


Indian. 


Ceylonese. 


Ethiopian. 


Seychelles and 
Mascarene. 


European and 
Siberian. 


Mediterranean 
and Eremian. 


Manchurian 
and Japanese. 


Nearctic. 


o 

■ft 

o 


Chihan. 


Brachyplatys 








2 


21 


11 


D 


7 


7 


2 


10 


3 














Geotomus . 


1 




7 


1 


1 


3 




3 


4 


1 


16 


4 


1 


6 


1 


7 


14 


1 


Calliphara 








1 


13 


11 


2 


5 






















Coleotichus 


1 






3 


8 


3 




1 






















Cantheconidea . 








1 


2 


7 


2 


4 


5 


1 




1 














Platynopus 








1 


9 


5 


2 








14 
















Pegala 








2 


3 




1 
























Glaucias . 




1 


1 


4 


5 


3 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 
















Piezodorus 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


1 


1 


4 


1 


1 


3 




Mictis 






3 


1 


4 


6 


4 


6 


4 




2 


1 














Leptoglossus 








1 


2 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 








9 


28 


1 


Leptocorisa 








1 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


3 


2 


1 






1 


1 


2 




Noliphus . 








2 


4 


3 


1 
























Melanacanthus . 




1 


2 


1 






























Riptortus . 






1 


3 


8 


2 


4 


3 


3 




7 


1 






2 








Leptocoris . 






1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


1 


3 


3 


11 


3 








1 


1 




Mezira 






2 


2 


7 


6 


4 


7 


3 


2 


11 


4 


9 




1 


4 


27 


1 


Chiastoplo7iia 








1 






























Pictinus . 








1 


o 


2 




1 




1 




2 








1 


13 




Ctenoneurus 




1 


1 


3 


1 












2 
















Carventm 








1 


o 


1 




1 


















5 




Protacanthus 








1 










1 


1 














1 




Pyrrhohaplms 








1 


3 


2 


1 
























Nesostethus 








2 1 
























1 







88 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 







Australasian. 


(Oriental. 


African. 


Palaearctic. 


Samoan Genera. 










"3 

c 
















C 


Mediterranean ; 
and Eremian. j 


,nese.! 


Hawaiian. 


New Zealai 


Australian. 


Polynesian. 


Austro-Orie 


Malaysian. 


Philippine. 


Indo-Chine 


Indian. 


Ceylonese. 


Ethiopian. 


Seychelles ; 
Mascarer 


European a 
Siberian. 


Manchuriai 
and Japa 


Graptostethus 








3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


5 


2 


11 


2 


1 


1 


1 


Nysius 


27 


3 


2 


6 


2 


1 




1 


4 


3 


5 


3 


8 


10 


3 


Germalus . 






1 




5 




1 






1 












Neocrompus 








1 
























Clerada 






4 


1 


2 


1 




1 


1 




1 


1 








Orthaea 


1 


1 




Q 
O 


8 


2 


5 


6 


3 


6 


13 


4 


3 


3 


11 


Bedunia . 








2 


1 


1 


2 






1 












Bryanella . 








1 
























Aplianus . 






3 


2 


1 


3 


1 


6 


17 


1 


15 


3 


16 


25 


2 


Cligenes . 






3 


1 


1 




2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 








Dysdercus 








o 

ti 


1 1 

14: 


•J 







q 


q 


1 F. 
10 









o 
L 


Idiocysta . 








1 
























Gardena . 






1 


2 


1 




2 


1 




2 


1 


1 




1 


1 


Luteva 


2 






2 




11 


1 


1 
















Empicoris . 


3 


4 


2 


5 


1 


4 


3 






6 


3 


1 


4 


9 


2 


Dictynna . 








1 
























Polytoxus . 








1 


4 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 




2 




Sastrapada 






1 


1 


1 


6 


2 








4 


1 




2 




Oncocephalus 






4 


2 


4 


6 


6 


5 


8 


3 


24 


o 
<J 


2 


31 


1 


Peregrinator 








1 


1 


2 


1 


2 




1 




1 








Arhela 








1 




2 












1 








Reduviolus 


28 


5 


1 


2 


5 


6 


4 


8 


5 


3 


15 


2 


16 


22 


3 


Cimex 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


5 


5 


1 



American. 



15 



1 
11 

29 

10 
9 
3 



22 19 3 
2 6 1 



Family Plataspidae Dallas. 

1. Brachyplatys pacificus Dallas. 

Brachy])la.tys pacifica Dallas, List Hemipt. Brit. Mus., I, p. 70, 1851. 
B. intacta Walker, Cat. Heteropt. Brit. Mus., I, p. 106, 1867. 
B. cupreata Walker, torn, cit., p. 107, 1867. 

Upolii : — Apia : 15 specimens, x.1924, 1 specimen, iv.l924, and 1 specimen, 
xii.1924 ; 1 specimen, 26.V.1924 (Bryan) ; Malololelei : 1 specimen, 9.vi.l924 ; 
Lalomanu : 4 specimens, xi.l924. 

Savaii : — Fagamalo : 1 specimen, xi.l925 ; Savaii, 1,000 ft., 2 specimens, 
21. xi. 1925 ; Safune : Rain Forest, 2,000-4,000 ft., 5 adults and 4 larvae, v.1924 
(Bryan) ; Salailua : Lower Forest, 1,000-2,000 ft., 1 specimen, v.1924 (Bryan)- 



HEMIPTEKA— HETEROPTERA. 



89 



Tutuila : — -Pago Pago: 2 specimens. 2.xii.l924; 1 specimen, 16.iv.l924 
(Bryan) ; 4 adults and 3 larvae, 29.ix.1923 (Swezy and Wilder) ; Afono Trail : 
1 adult and 1 larva, 25.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; Amauli : 1 specimen, 
3.ix.l923 (Bryan). 

This species has been recorded from Fiji, Tonga, Wallis Is., the Marianne 
Is., and also from Gilolo and Sula Is. in the Austro-Oriental Subregion. 

Family Cydnidae Billberg. 

2. Geotomus pygmaeus (Dallas). 
Aethus pygmaeus Dallas, List. Hemipt. Brit. Mus., I, p. 120, 1851. 

Cydnus rarociliatus BUenrieder, Nat. Tijdsskr. Ned. Ind., XXIV, p. 139, pi. 1, fig. 7, 1862. 
Aethus nanulus, Walker, Cat. Heteropt. Brit. Mus., I, p. 162, 1867. 
Aethus platysomoides Walker, torn, cit., p. 163, 1867. 
Aethus omicron Walker, op. cit., Ill, p. 534, 1868. 
Cydnus pallidicornis Vollenhoven, Faun. Ind. Neerl., p. 17, 1868. 
■ Geotomus jucundus Buchanan White, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), XX, p. 110, 1877. 
Geotomus suhtristis Buchanan White, torn, cit., p. Ill, 1877. 
Geotomus apicalis Horvath, Termesz. Filzet., Ill, p. 143, 1879. 
Aethus palliditarsus Scott, Trans. Ent. Sac. Land., 1880, p. 309. 

Geotomus pygmaeus Signoret, Ann. Sac. Ent. France, (6), III, p. 51, t. 3, fig. 160, 1883. 
Geotomus pygmaeus Kirkaldy, Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc, I, p. 145, 1907. 
Geotomus pygmaeus Cheesman, Trans. Ent. Soc. Land., p. 154, 1927. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, i.l925, 1 specimen, 10. ii. 1924, 3 specimens, 
iii.1924, 4 specimens, iv.l924, 1 specimen, v. 1924, 1 specimen, x.1924, 11 speci- 
mens, xi.l924, and 3 specimens, xii.1924 ; Malololelei : 1 specimen, iv.l924, 
and 1 specimen, xi.l924 (2,000 ft.). 

Savaii : — Salailua : 1 specimen, 19.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Tutuila :— 760-900 ft., 2 specimens, iv.l918, 1,000 ft., 2 specimens, 
25.viii.1918, centre of Island, 900-1,200 ft., and 1 specimen, 30.vi.l918 (Kellers) ; 
Pago Pago : 0-300 ft., 3 specimens, iv. 1918 (Kellers). 

Recorded from India, Burma, Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Cochin- 
China, China, Japan, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tahiti, Raiatea, and Hawaii.* 

It is doubtful if all these records refer to the same species. The Cydnidae 
are a difficult group, and several species may have been confused. The Samoan 
specimens, however, have been compared with Dallas' type, labelled India, and 

* Kirkaldy (Proc. Unn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 349, 1908) states that this species was 
introduced into Hawaii in the soil attached to plants, and suggests that this accounts for its 
extensive distribution. 



90 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



agree very well. The above synonymy, which is given to enable students of 
the Pacific fauna to trace this species in literature, is based on that of Lethierry; 
Severin and Distant, and is not necessarily accurate. 

Family Pentatomidae. 

Subfamily Scutellerinae. 

3. Calliphara (Lamprophara) bifasciata (White). 

Calliphara bifasciata A. White, CharleswortJi s Maq. Nat. Hist., (2), III, p. 541, 1839. 
Callidea bifasciata A White, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., Ill, p. 85, 1842. 
Callidea quadrifera Walker, Gat. Heteropt. Brit. Mus., Ill, p. 514, 1868. 
Calliphara {Lamprophara) bifasciata Stal, Enum. Hemipt., Ill, p. 16, 1873. 
Lamprophara bifasciata Schouteden, Wyts. Gen. Ins., XXIV, p. 31, pi. 2, fig. 1, 1904. 

Typical form : * — 

Upolu :— Malololelei, 2,000 ft.: 1 specimen, 10.iii.l924, 1 specimen, 18.iv.l925, 
2 specimens, 14-30. vi. 1924, 1 specimen, vii.1924 ; 1 specimen, 23.iv.1922, and 
2 specimens, 20. vi. 1924 (Armstrong). 

Tutuila : — Pago Pago : 1 specimen, 30.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Variety quadrifera Walker : — 

Upolu : — Malololelei : 2 specimens, 18.iv.l925 ; 2,000 ft., 3 specimens, 
14-30.vi.l924, 2 specimens, vii.1924, 2 specimens, 28. xi. 1924 ; 3 specimens, 
20.vi.l924, and 4 larvae, 23. iv. 1922 (Armstrong). 

Savaii : — Mulifanua : 1 specimen, 9.xi.l925 ; Safune : 1 specimen, 13.V.1924 
(Bryan). 

Tutuila : — Pago Pago : 1 specimen, 30 .ix. 1923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 1 
larva, 12.iv.l924 (Bryan). Leone Eoad : 1 larva, 7.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 
760-900 ft., 1 adult and 1 larva, iv.l918 (Kellers) ; 1,200 ft., 1 larva, 21.vii.l918 
(Kellers). 

Recorded from Fiji and Samoa. 

In the Samoan material var. quadrifera Walker, is represented only by 
females, and the typical form only by males. In the Fiji material in the British 
Museum only var. quadrifera is present, but both sexes are included. 
The Samoan specimens differ from the Fiji examples in the darlc fuscous venter, 
and in the indistinctly limited fuscous spot at the middle of the scutellum, and 
may represent a distinct race. Tlie original locality given by White was, South 
Sea Islands. 



* This is the form figured by Schouteden and accepted by Kirkaldy as typical. In the 
original description, however, White does not mention the brown, median, pronotal band. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



91 



4. Coleotichus (Epicoleotichus) bulowl Schout. 

Coleotichus {Epicoleotichus) excellens (Walk.) Schouteden (partim), (Wytsm. Gen. Ins., XXIV, 
p. 6, 1904. 

Coleotichus {Coleotichus) Biilowi Schouteden, Notes Leyden Mus., XXIX, p. 207, 1908. 

Upolu: — ^Apia : 2 specimens, vi.I924, I specimen, iv.l925 ; Malololelei : 
1 specimen, 24.ii.1924, 2 specimens, 22.iii.1924, 2 specimens, 2,000 ft., 17.iv.l925, 
1 specimen, 21.iv.l925. 

Savaii : — 4 specimens (W. von Billow. Type material in Leyden Museum). 

Tutuila : — Pago Pago : 1 specimen, 14.ix.l923 (Steffany). 

Only recorded from Samoa, but closely resembles C. excellens Walk., wbich 
occurs in Australia and New Caledonia. In his original description Scbouteden 
refers tbis species to his subgenus Coleotichus, but this was apparently a slip, 
since it agrees more closely with his subgenus Epicoleotichus, and he himself 
states that C. huloivi is most closely allied to C. excellens Walk., which he refers 
to Epicoleotichus. Indeed, the record of C. excellens as occurring in Samoa 
(Schouteden, Wytsm. Gen. Ins., XXIV, p. 6, 1904) almost certainly refers to 
C. huloivi and is therefore not included in the present list. 

5. Coleotichus (Paracoleotichus) sordidus (Walker). 

Coleotichus sordidus Walker, Cat. Heteropt. Brit. Mus., I, p. 1, 1867. 
Coleotichus nigrovarius Stal (nec Walk.), Enum. Hemipt., Ill, p. 4, 1873. 

Coleotichus {Paracoleotichus) sordidus Schout., Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungarici, III, pp. 320 and 355, 
1905. 

Coleotichus {Paracoleotichus) sordidus, Schout., Wyts. Gen. Ins., Heteropt., fasc. XXIV, p. 6, 

pi. 1, fig. 1, 1901. 
Coleotichus .sordidus Cheesman, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1927, p. 154. 

Upolu : — Apia: 1 specimen, 18.ix.l920, and 1 larva, 14.vi.l924 (Armstrong); 
1 specimen, v.1924, and two specimens, x.1925 ; Malololelei: 1 specimen, 2.vii.l924 
(Armstrong) ; 1 specimen, 20.iv.l925. 

Tutuila: — 1 specimen, 30. vi. 1918 (Kellers); Pago Pago: I specimen, 
14.ix.l923 (Steffany) ; 1 specimen, 25.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; Afono Trail : 
1 larva, 25.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Recorded from Isle of Pines, Fiji, Marquesas Is., Society Is., New Hebrides 
and doubtfully also from New Caledonia and Australia (fide Kirkaldy). The 
specimens from the Marquesas and Society Is. agree very well with the type, 
which is from the Isle of Pines. The Fijian specimens show slight differences 



92 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



from the typical form, and more nearly approach C. nigrovarius Walker. It is 
possible that C. nigrovarius is merely the Fijian race of 0. sordidus. 

Subfamily Asopinae (Amyoteinae). 

6. Cantheconidea cyanacantha (Stal). 

Canthecona cyanacantha Stal, Enum. Hem.ipt., I, p. 42, 1870. 

Cantheconidea cyanacantha Schouteden, Wyts. Gen. his., Heteropt., fasc. 52, p. 45, 1907. 
Canthecona cyanacantha Kirk., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 347, 1908. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 7.iii.l924, 1 specimen, 28.iv.1925, and 1 speci- 
men, X.1925, 1,000 ft. ; Malololelei : I specimen, 25.ii.1924, 2.000 ft. ; 1 specimen, 
iv.l924. 

Savaii : — Safune : 1 specimen. Lower Forest, ll.v.1924 (Bryan). 
Tutuila :— 1 specimen, 1,000 ft., 25.viii.1918 (Kellers). 
Previously only recorded from Fiji. 

7. Platynopus (Montrouzierellus) melacanthus (Boisd.). 

Pentatoma melacanthmii. Boisduval, Voy. Astrolabe, Ent., II, p. 628, pi. 2, fig. 7, 1838. 
Pentatoma fallenii Guerin, Voy. Coquille, Zool., II,. p. 165, pi. 11, fig. 8, 1838. 
Heteropiis melacanthum Montrouzier, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4), I, p. 61, 1861. 
Acanthomera melacantha Montrouzier, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon., (2), XI, p. 226, 1864. 
Platynopus melacanthus Mayr, Reise Freg. Novara, Hemipt., p. 32, 1866. 
Platynopus tenellus Walker, Cat. Heteropt. Brit. Mus., I, p. 127, 1867. 
Canthecona apicalis Vollenhoven, Faun. Ind. Neerl., Ill, p. 6, pi. 1, fig. 3, 1868. 
Canthecona biguttata Vollenhoven, Faun. Ind. Neerl., Ill, p. 8, pi. 1, fig. 6, 1868. 
Platynopus melacanthus Stal., Enum. Hemipt., I, p. 40, 1870. 

Platynopus {Acanthomera) melacanthus Schouteden, Wyts. Gen. Ins., fasc. 52, Heteropt., p. 48, 
pi. 3, fig. 10, 1907. 

Platynopus melacanthus Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 347, 1908. 
Platynopus (Montrouzierellus) melacanthus Kirkaldy, Cat. Heteropt., I, p. 11, 1909. 
Platynopus melacanthus Cheesman, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1927, p. 155. 

Upolu : — Apia : 3 specimens, 19.ii.l923, 8.iii., and 14. vi. 1924 (Armstrong) ; 
3 specimens, 14. vi. 1924, x.1924, and i.l925 ; Malololelei : 4 specimens, 2,000 ft., 
22.iii.1924, 15.vii.l924, and xii.1925 ; Aleipata : 1 specimen, iv.l924 ; Leulu- 
moega : 1 specimen, 14.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Savaii : — Safune : 1 adult and 2 larvae, 12.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Tutuila:— 2 specimens, 760-1,000 ft., iv. and 13.X.1918 (Kellers); Leone 
Road: 1 specimen, 7.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; Fagasa: 1 specimen, 9.ix.l923 
(Swezey and Wilder) ; Pago Pago : 2 specimens, 9 and 30.ix.l923 (Swezey and 
Wilder), 2 specimens, 4.xi.l925, and 2 specimens, 14. xii.1925. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



93 



Manua : — Tau : 1 specimen, 27.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Apparently widely distributed over the S. Pacific and recorded from the 
Molluccas, New Guinea, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Loyalty Is. (Lifu), 
Woodlark Is. (Murua), Solomon Is., Fiji and Society Is. (Tahiti and Bora Bora). 

This species is known to feed on lepidopterous larvae, and on several 
occasions Mr. Hopkins himself has seen specimens sucking caterpillars of the 
butterfly Atella exulans. 

Subfamily Pentatominae. 
8. Pegala biguttuia Haglund. 

Pegala biguttuia Haglund, Stettin Ent. Zeit., XXIX, p. 159, 1868. 

Pegala biguttuia Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 349, 1908. 

Upolu : — Apia : 9 specimens, 14.vi.l924 (Armstrong), 1 specimen, ix.l924 ; 
Aleipata : 1 specimen, iv.-v.I924. 
Previously recorded from Fiji. 

9. Glaucias samoanus, sp. n. (Text-fig. 1). 

Colour. — More or less uniformly grass-green shading to emerald-green, 
eyes grey, ocelli yellowish-white, lateral margins of head immediately in front 
of eyes (broadly), posterior margin of eye, first segment of rostrum, the entire 
lateral margin of pronotum, including reflexed carina (narrowly), basal third 
of costal margin narrowly, and connexivum, bright yellow ; anterior lateral 
margins of juga brown ; antennae, apex of tylus, labrum, second, third, and 
fourth rostral segments, bright red ; the tarsi reddish-brown ; apical half of 
claws, apex of rostrum and extreme posterior lateral angles of abdominal segments 
black. Sternum, disc of venter, including basal tubercle, coxae and trochanters, 
yellow ; rims of spiracles white ; femora and tibiae yellowish-green. Membrane 
colourless hyaline, dorsal surface of abdomen emerald-green ; apices of tibiae 
and tarsi covered with reddish-brown hairs. 

Structure. — Head above finely, transversally rugose, more or less punctate 
between the ocelli ; underside smooth and shining, ocelli more than four times 
as far from one another as from the eyes. Length of head compared with width 
including eyes 9:11. Relative lengths of antennal segments 25 : 50 : 65 : 78 : 75. 
Bucculae more than six times as long as gula, sinuate in outline, extending 
nearly to base of head. Rostrum extending on to third (second apparent) 
ventrite, relative length of segments 42 : 75 : 65 : 55. Pronotum and scutellum 



94 



INSECTS OP SAMOA. 



distinctly but finely rugosely punctate, hemielytra finely punctate. Lateral 
margins of pronotum slightly convex, disc only moderately convex ; mesosternal 
carina moderately elevated, thickened posteriorly ; metasternum elevated in a 
broad rounded ridge ; basal abdominal tubercle moderately large conical extend- 
ing between posterior coxae to metasternal ridge. 
Male and female genital segments figured. 

Somewhat variable in size, the following are typical measurements : 
Total length including membrane: (J 17 mm., $ 17-5 mm. Length of 




Text-fig. 1. — Glaucias samoanus, sp. n. : a, terminal view of male 
pygophor, showing parameres ; ventral view of female genital 
plates. 



scutellum : and $ 7 mm. Width of scutellum at base : (J and $ 6 mm. 
Width across humeral angles : and $ 9 mm. 

Upolu : — Apia: 1 specimen, 1,000 ft., x.1925, 1 specimen, 16.xi.l925 ; 
Malololelei : 2 specimens (including ^ type), 2.vii.l924 (Armstrong), 1 specimen, 
20.iv.l925, and 1 specimen, 2,000 ft., 28.xi.1924. 

Easily distinguished from all other species of the genus by the entirely 
bright red antennae, and the red rostrum and tarsi ; also by the rather unusually 
pronounced rugose puncturation. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



95 



10. Piezodorus rubrofasciatus (F.). 

Cimex nibrofasciatus Fabricius, Mant. Ins., II, p. 293, 1787. 

Cimex hybneri Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (ed. XIII), p. 2151, 1789. 

Eaphigaster oceanicus Montrouzier, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, (2), XI, p. 224, 1864. 

Piezodorus rubrofasciatus Stal, Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Handl., VII, no. 11, p. 32, 1868. 

Piezodorus hybneri Kirkaldy, Cat. Hemipt. Het., I, p. 136, 1909, full synonymy given. 

Piezodorus rubrofasciatus Cheesman, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1927, p. 155. 

Upolu : — Apia: 1 specimen, 21.viii.l924 (Armstrong), 1 specimen, vi.l925. 
Widely distributed over the Palaeotropical Region, and extending from East 
Africa through the Indian and Malayan Regions to Tahiti. 
. Kirkaldy quotes Synanthereae as food plants. 

Family Coreidae. 
Subfamily Coreinae. 

11. Mictis profana (F.) f. crux Dall. 

Lygaeus profana Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng., p. 211, 1803. 
Mictis crucifera Leach, Zool. Misc., I, p. 92, pi. 40, 1814. 
Anisoscelis abdominalis Guerin, Voy. Coq. Zool., II, p. 176, 1838. 
Cerbus crucifera H.S., Wanzen Ins., VI, p. 60, fig. 622, 1842. 
Myctis profanus Westwood, Hope Cat. Hemipt., II, p. 10, 1842. 
Mictis crux Dallas, List Hemipt. Het. Brit. Mtis., II, p. 405, 1852. 

Nematopus profana Montrouzier, Ann. Sci PJiys. Nat. Agric. Indust. Lyon, (2), VII, pt. 1, p. 102, 
1855. 

Mictis profanus Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 352, 1908. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 20.ix.l924 (Armstrong) ; Aleipata, Lalomanu 
1 specimen, xi.l924. 

Savaii : — Safune : 1 specimen, lowlands to 1,000 ft. (Bryan). 
Tutuila :— Pago Pago : 1 larva, 0-300 ft. (Kellers). 

Originally described by Dallas from Samoan specimens under the name 
Mictis crux ; since regarded by Distant and Dallas as a variety of the more 
widely distributed Mictis profana, which is distributed tliroughout the Austro- 
Oriental and Australasian Regions, including New Hebrides, New Caledonia, 
Loyalty Is., Friendly Is., and Fiji. 



96 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



12. Leptoglossus australis (F.). 

Cunex australis Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 708, 1775. 

Lygaeus australis Fabricius, Ent. Syst., VI, p. 140, 1794. 

Theognis australis Mayr, Reise Freg. Novara, Hemipt., p. 104, 1866. 

Leptoglossus australis Stal, Hemipt. Fabr., I, p. 51, 1868. 

Leptoglossus australis Cheesman, Trans. Ent. Sac. London, 1927, p. 155, 1927. 

Upolu : — Apia : 2 specimens, 10.xii.l921, 1 specimen, 18.V.1922, 1 specimen, 
5.x.i922, 4 specimens, 7.X.1922, 2 larvae, 17.ii.l924 (Armstrong) ; 1 specimen, 
27.ii.1924, 5 specimens, iv.l924, 1 specimen, viii.1924, 1 specimen, 6.ii.l925 (Pest 
of Cucurbits No. 723), 3 specimens, v.1925 ; Mulifanua : 1 specimen, 10.i.l923 
(Armstrong). 

Recorded from New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tahiti, and Bora Bora. 
Mr. Hopkins states that this species is injurious to Cucurbitaceae. 

Subfamily Alydinae. 

13. Leptocorisa varicornis (F,). 

Gerris varicornis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng., p. 260, 1803. 

Leptocorisa flavida Guerin, Voy. Coq. Ins., p. 178, pi. 12, fig. 12, 1830. 

Coreus {Stenocephalus) varicornis Burmeister, Nova. Acta. Ac. Leop., XVI, SuppL, p. 298, 1834. 
Myodochus varicornis Burmeister, Handb. Ent., II, p, 325, 1835. 
Leptocorisa chinensis Dallas, List. Hemipt. Het. Brit. Mus., II, p. 483, 1852. 
Leptocorisa varicornis Dallas, torn, cit., p. 484, 1852. 

Leptocorisa acuta Kirkaldy {nec Thunberg), Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 353, 1908. 
Leptocorisa varicornis China, Bull. Ent. Research, XIV, pt. 3, p. 237, figs. 5 and 6, 1924. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 12.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 2 specimens, 
10.iv.l924, 1 specimen, 4.V.1924 (Armstrong) ; 1 specimen, 13.4.1925, 7 specimens, 
viii.1925 (No. 763) ; Malololelei : 1 specimen, 2,000 ft., 22.iii.1924 ; Leulumoega : 
1 specimen, 14.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Savaii : — Safune : Lowlands to 1,000 ft,, 1 specimen, 1. v. 1924 ; Rain Forest, 
2,000-4,000 ft., 4 specimens, 2 and 4.V.1924 ; Lower Forest, 1,000-2,000 ft., 
8 specimens, 5.V.1924 ; 2 specimens, 4.V.1924 (Bryan). Salailua : Lower Forest, 
1,000-2,000 ft. 1 specimen, 17.V.1924, 4 specimens, 22.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Tutuila : — 6 specimens, 760-900 ft., iv.l918, 1 specimen, 30.vi.l918, and 
1 specimen, 2,141 ft., 22.ix.1918 (Kellers) ; Pago Pago : 4 specimens, 9.ix.l923 
(Swezey and Wilder) ; 5 specimens, and 1 larva, 12.iv.l924 (Bryan) ; 1 specimen, 
14.xii.l925 ; Fagasa : 2 specimens, 9.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; Afono 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



97 



Trail : 1 specimen, 25. ix. 1923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; Leone Road : 5 specimens 
and 1 larva, 19.ii.l924 (Bryan). 

Manua : — Tau : 4 specimens, 27.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

This is the most widely distributed species of the genus, and occurs through- 
out the Indian, Indo-Chinese, Malaysian, Oriental, Austro-Oriental, and 
Australasian Regions, extending much farther east than the closely allied 
species L. acuta, Thunb., which is apparently not found east of New Guinea. 
Kirkaldy's record of L. acuta for Fiji undoubtedly refers to L. varicomis, F. 
Both these species are well known pests of rice in the Far East. 

14. Noliphus discopterus Stal. 

Noliphus discopterus Stal, Enum. Hemipt., Ill, p. 87, 1873. 

Upolu : — Apia : 3 specimens, 28.X.1923, 1 specimen, 9.iii.l924, and 1 speci- 
men, 4.V.1924 (Armstrong) ; 1 specimen, 28.iv.1925, and 1 larva, vi.l924 ; 
Lalomanu : 1 specimen, xi.l924 ; Tuaefu : 1 specimen, 16.ix.l923 (Swezey and 
Wilder). 

Recorded from Samoa. This species is closely allied to the Fijian N. 
insularis Stal, and is probably merely a local race of that species. 

15. Melanacanthus margineguttatus Dist. 

Melanacanthus margineguttatus Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), VII, p. 585, 1911. 
Mirperus margineguttatus Bergroth, Mem.. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXII, p. 160, 1913. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 7.X.1923, 2 specimens, 28.x. 1923 ; 1 specimen, 
4.V.1924 (Armstrong) ; 1 specimen, ii.l924, 1 specimen, 12.iii.l924, 3 specimens, 
28.iv.1924, 2 specimens, vi.l924, 1 specimen, x.1924 ; Malololelei : 1 specimen, 
2,000 ft., 23.xi.1924. 

Originally recorded from N.W. Australia. The range of this species can 
now be extended to include Queensland, New Zealand, and Samoa. Stal's 
subgenus Melanacanthus must be elevated to generic rank, and is perfectly dis- 
tinct from the African genus Mirperus Stal. 

16. Riptortus insularis, sp. n. (Text-figs. 2 and 3). 
Colour. — Sparsely covered with a short pale pubescence. Deep fer- 
ruginous brown, eyes, two longitudinal stripes on base of vertex behind the 
ocelli, first and last segments of rostrum, extreme apices of second and 
third antennal segments, gula, pro-, meso-, and meta-sterna, hind femoral 
II. 3. 2 



98 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



teeth, base and apex of liind tibiae and a broad longitudinal lateral stripe 
down side of venter, dark brown shading to black ; basal fourth of fourth 
antennal segment, extreme apex of scutellum, a broad median stripe down 
middle of venter (not extending on to the seventh sternite), an irregular rather 
darker longitudinal fleck on each segment of venter, in the middle of the dark 
brown lateral stripe, and the connexivum fulvous yellow ; a broad stripe down 




Text-fig. 2. — Riptorhis insularis, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellum ; 

h, terminal view of male pygophor. 

each side of the underside of head extending on to the propleura across the ^to- 
acetabula and two large oval spots on the middle of the meso- and meta-pleura 
respectively, bright shining yellow ; the meso- and meta-pleural spots not 
forming a continuous line with the lateral stripe on the head and prothorax, 
and not margined with black ; lateral margins of humeral spines shining sordid 
yellow ; front and middle legs and middle of hind tibiae, pale ferruginous brown ; 
dorsal surface of abdomen uniformly bright ferruginous brown. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEKOPTERA. 



99 



Structure. — Head rather elongate, as long as wide, including eyes (68 : 66), 
finely punctato-rugose, ocelli prominent rather closer to one another than to 
eyes ; relative lengths of antennal segments, 75 : 60 : 58 : 145 ; rostrum stretching 
to base of hind coxae, relative lengths of segments 45 : 50 : 30 : 50. Pronotum 
as long as broad, excluding humeral spines, the latter rather short and broad, 
only moderately acute ; together with the scutellum, punctato-rugose. Corium 
and clavus rather sparsely but distinctly punctate, the punctm'ation much less 
dense than in R. obscuricornis and R. serripes F. ; trapezoidal cell on corium 
long and rather narrow. Posterior margin of seventh abdominal tergite ((^) 
more or less rectangularly produced, the actual angle rounded. Male genitalia 
figured (Fig. 2, b). Total length 15 mm., breadth across humeral spines 3 mm. 




Text-fig. 3. — Riptortus insularis, sp. n. : lateral view of head and thorax. 



Upolu : — -Apia : 1 specimen, 12.viii.l924, and 1 specimen, 12.X.1924 (Arm- 
strong) ; Aleipata, Lalomanu : 2 adults (including type), and 2 larvae, xi.l924 ; 
Vailutai : 1 specimen, 9.vi.l924 ; Malololelei : 1 specimen, 9.vi.l924. 

Savaii : — Safune : 1 specimen, 15.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Also from Fiji : — Savu Savu : 1 adult and 1 larva, iii.1922, 1 adult and 
1 larva, v. 1922 (H. W. Simmonds) ; Motariki : 1 specimen, v.1921 (Simmonds) ; 
Cuvu : 1 specimen, l.i.l917 (A. Veitch). 

Allied to R. serripes (= robustus Dall.), but a much smaller and more slender 
species with longer head, narrower pronotum, shorter humeral spines, less 
densely punctate corium, the hind tibiae fulvous yellow with base and apex 



100 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



fuscous. Differs from R. obscuricornis, Dallas (^^ abdominalis, Westw.) in 
having the large yellow spots of the meso- and meta-pleura oval in shape (not 
parallel-sided), their margins not, as they are in R. obscuricornis Dall., continuous 
with each other and with those of the yellow stripe on side of head and pro- 
pleuron ; also differs by the absence of the black vitta on the disc of the venter. 

R. horvathi, Bergr. (= R. serripes Horv. nec Fabr.), recorded from Thursday 
Is., is apparently synonymous with i^. obscuricornis Dall., a well-known Queens- 
land species. R. insularis is probably identical with the undetermined species 
recorded by Kirkaldy {Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 353, 1908) as 
occurring on Mauritius bean {Mucuna atropurpurea) in Fiji. 

R. insularis obscurus, var. n. 

There is a female specimen from Tutuila, referable to this species, which 
is much darker than typical males, and which differs in having the yellow spots 
on the meso- and meta-pleura practically obsolete. The propleural stripe is 
also much reduced, and there is a trace of pale subapical annulation on the 
hind femur. This specimen apparently represents a distinct race. 

Tutuila :— -Pago Pago : 1 $ (type), 18.ix.l919 (Swezey and Wilder). 

17. Riptortus tutuilensis, sp. n. (Text-figs. 4 and 5). 
Colour. — Dark chestnut brown, densely covered with short but thick, 
rather tomentose pale golden pubescence, particularly dense on the pronotum, 
and giving the pronotum a pale yellowish colour. Apex of tylus, lateral margins 
of head in front of eyes, and a stripe behind each eye, obscure fulvous yellow ; 
eyes reddish-brown, antenna fulvous, the first segment darker, apices of first, 
second, and third segments black, basal third of fourth segment yellow : under- 
side of head dark brown, with a broad dull yellow stripe down each side ; rostrum 
dark ferruginous brown with apex black. Pronotum appearing dull yellowish- 
white, the anterior lobe (calli) and posterior margin, dark brown, lateral margins 
of humeral spines glabrous shining yellow. Propleuron yellowish-grey, with 
short, broad dark brown stripe behind the eye, laterad of a dull yellow spot 
over base of acetabula, and the lateral margin brown. Scutellum deep fer- 
ruginous brown with the apex glabrous yellow. Meso- and meta-pleura pale 
brown, more or less variegated with deeper brown, the whole appearing yellowish- 
grey by reason of the pubescence ; the acetabulae, posterior margins of pleurites, 
and rim of odoriferous orifice dirty yellow. Pro- and meso-sterna dark brown. 
Hemielytra chestnut brown, the puncturation as in R. insularis, but with a 



HBMIPTBEA— HETEROPTERA. 



101 



distinct though, very short golden pubescence. Legs dark brown with the 
coxae, trochanters, bases of femora, front and middle tarsi, hind tibiae, except 
bases and apices, pale brown, shading to yellow ; the upper side of the hind 
femur obscurely mottled with dull yellow giving the superficial appearance 




Text-pig. 4. — Riptortus tutuilensis, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellum ; 

b, hind leg. 

from above of a sub-apical pale annulation. Abdomen below greyish-yellow, 
finely mottled with red and pale brown ; connexivum unicolorous, but with 
base and apex of the fifth (fourth apj^arent) sternite towards lateral margin, 
obscurely fuscous. Dorsum orange-brown, the sixth, seventh, eighth, and 
ninth tergites darker brown ; connexivum brown, the fifth tergite with an 



102 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



obscure yellowish spot on apical third of its lateral margin, and with a dark 
fuscous spot at base, middle and apex of its lateral margin ; sixth connexival 
tergite similarly but less definitely marked. 

Structure. — Head equilateral, robust, ocelli moderately prominent, 
slightly closer to the eyes than to one another ; relative lengths of antennal 
segments 72 : 56 : 61 : 145 ; rostrum stretching to middle of metasternum, 
relative lengths of segments 47 : 55 : 30 : 50. Pronotum distinctly broader 
(including humeral spines) than long, the latter rather short and broad, only 
moderately acute ; strongly rugosely punctate. Scutellum with disc moderately 




Text-fig. 5. — -RiptoHus tutuilensis, sp. n. : lateral view of head and thorax. 



convex, indistinctly rugosely punctate. Corium and clavus, as in R. insularis 
rather sparsely but distinctly punctate ; trapezoidal cell on corium less elongate 
than in R. insularis. 

Total length, 16 mm. ; breadth across humeral angles, 3' 75 mm. 

Tutuila :— Pago Pago : 1 $ (type), 20.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Also recorded from Fiji. 

Fiji :— Cuvu : 1 26.vi.1915 (R. Veitch). 

Allied to Ri'ptortus clavatus (Thunb.) and K. fuscus (F.), in the absence 
of the bright yellow shining lateral fascia on underside of head and thorax, but 
easily distinguished from both by the uniformly ferruginous dorsum, without 
the black coloration on the metanotum, and on the first, second, and fourth 
abdominal tergites. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEEOPTBRA. 



103 



Subfamily Corizinae. 
18. Leptocoris insularis Kirk. 

Leptocoris insularis Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 353, 1908. 

Upolu : — Apia: 1 specimen, 18.ix.l922 (Armstrong): Malololelei : 2 speci- 
mens, 25.ii.1924. 

This species has previously been recorded only from. Fiji. 

Family Dysodiidae Renter. 

19. Mezira membranacea (Fabr.) 

Acanthia membranacea Fabricius, Ent. Syst., SuppL, p. 526, 1797. 

Aradus albipennis Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng., p. 118, 1803. 

Aradus memhranaceus Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng., p. 118, 1803. 

Brachyrynchus orienialis Laporte, Essai Hemipt., p. 54, 1832. 

Aradus lugubris Boisduval, Voy. Astrolabe, Ent., II, p. 642, pi. XI, f. 24, 1835. 

Brachyrhynchus memhranaceus Stal, Kongl. SvensJc. Vet.-Ak. Handl., VII, no. 11, pp. 96, 1868. 

Upolu : — Apia : 5 specimens and 2 larvae, 14.iv.l922 (Armstrong) ; 1 
specimen, 10.ix.l923 and 3 specimens. 12.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 10 
specimens, ii.l924, 4 specimens, iv.l924, 8 specimens, x.1924, 1 specimen, xii.1924 ; 
Malololelei : 8 specimens, 24.ii.1924, 1 specimen, 22.iii.1924, 4 specimens, 2,000 ft., 
12.iii.l924 ; Lalomanu : 3 specimens, xi.l924 ; Aleipata : 1 specimen, iv.l924 ; 
Vailima : 1 specimen, vi.l924. 

Savaii : — Safune : 4 specimens, 1, 10, and 12.V.1924 (Bryan) ; Fagamalo : 

1 specimen, viii.1924. 

Tutuila : — Pago Pago: 3 specimens, 9.ix.l923, and 1 specimen, 30.ix.l923 
(Swezey and Wilder) ; 2 specimens, 16 and 19.iv.l924 (Bryan) ; 1 specimen, 
iv.l928 (Kellers) ; Leone Road : 1 specimen, 7.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 

2 specimens, 29.iii.1926 (Judd) ; Fagasa : 12 specimens, 9.ix.l923 (Swezey and 
Wilder). 

Manua Is. : — Tau : 1 specimen, 20.ii.l926 (Judd). 

Widely distributed over the Indian, Indo-Chinese, Malaysian and Philippine 
subregions. 

It is rather surprising that this species should occur so commonly in Samoa, 
where one would rather expect to find the Austro-Oriental Mezira thoracoceras 
Montr., which has been recorded from Papua, New Caledonia, N. Australia, and 
Fiji. M. membranacea, however, is easily distinguished from M. thoracoceras 
by the equally long second and third antennal segments, the third segment 
being distinctly longer than the second in the latter species. 



104 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



Chiastoplonia, gen. n. 

Allied to Mezira, Am. et Serv., but differs in the following characters : 
Tylus very short, extending scarcely beyond the insertion of the antennae and 
not at all beyond the antenniferous teeth. Scutellum with percurrent longi- 
tudinal and transverse ridges in the form of a cross. Corium very short, scarcely 
extending beyond the apex of scutellum, the clavus extending distinctly beyond 
the adjoining region of the corium. Membrane large and smooth without 
distinct veins. Spiracles of second and third (actual) abdominal segments on 
lateral edge of connexivum instead of placed ventrally. 

Genotype : — Chiastoplonia pygmaea, sp. no v. 

20. Chiastoplonia pygmaea, sp. n. (Text-fig. 6). 

Colour. — (J. Head, pronotum, and scutellum dark ferruginous brown, 
antennae, sternum, venter, connexivum, and legs ferruginous brown. Mem- 
brane greyish, paler towards apex of clavus, shading to black towards the costal 
margin. 

Structure. — ^Head nmch broader than long (28 : 19), tylus indistinctly delimited 
from juga, not at all produced anteriorly its apex level with the apices of anten- 
niferous tubercles which are short and broad and form rectangular teeth with 
the posterior side parallel to the axis of the head ; postocular spines obtuse 
but not obsolete ; vertex with broad, distinct, longitudinal ridge ; antennae 
about as long as head and pronotum together, the first segment strongly 
incrassate, much thicker than others, about twice as long as wide, nearly equal in 
width to the length of eye ; second segment less strongly incrassate but much 
wider at apex than at base ; third segment longest, gradually widening towards 
apex ; fourth robustly fusiform the widest part nearer the apex, apical fourth 
covered with long white hairs ; relative lengths of segments 12:10:15:12; 
rostrum scarcely extending beyond buccal groove, in which it lies, the bucculae 
moderately well elevated, parallel. Pronotum twice as broad at the base as 
long (60 : 29) equally broad anteriorly as long ; lateral margins carinate anterior 
to humeral angles ; those of posterior lobe straight, strongly converging 
anteriorly ; those of anterior lobe, at first parallel then converging, at same 
angle as those of posterior lobe, to anterior lateral angles ; anterior margin 
straight ; posterior margin moderately emarginate above base of scutellum ; 
humeral angles rounded ; disc of anterior lobe with a pair of large circular 



HEMIPTERA— HETEEOPTERA. 



105 



rather obscure, flattened tubercles ; disc of posterior lobe with an obscure 
central raised area surrounded by a depressed area. Scutellum about as long 
as broad, lateral margins at base subparallel, strongly elevated ; apex depressed, 
lateral margins ridged ; disc with a broad median longitudinal percurrent ridge 
and a less elevated, transverse per- 
current ridge, the two forming the 
conventional cross. Hemielytra long, 
extending to the eighth (sub-apical) 
abdominal tergite ; corium very short, 
feebly thickened, veins not well 
marked except along costal margin at 
apex, basal costal lobe more or less 
obsolete, its lateral margin straight, 
parallel to axis of body and not ex- 
tending beyond humeral angle of pro- 
notum ; membrane long and broad, 
completely filling dorsal surface of 
abdomen within the connexival regions, 
entirely without veins, more or less 
distinctly transversely wrinkled. Ab- 
domen more or less parallel sided, 
very slightly widening towards apex ; 
posterior lateral angles of segments of 
connexivum very slightly prominent, 

the lateral margins more or less per- ^ . , . 

1 1 1 • 1 Text-pig. 6. — Chiastoploma pt/gmaea, gen. et. 
current ; spiracles of second and third n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 

abdominal segments placed on lateral 

edge of connexivum near posterior angles of segment, remaining spiracles placed 
ventrally on connexivum but close to its lateral margin ; venter convex, 
pygophor (ninth segment) and lateral processes of eighth segment feebly 
prominent. 

Length, 2-5 mm. Breadth across humeral angles, 1-0 mm. 
Tutuila : — Pago Pago : 1 ^ (type), in rotten Hau bark (Hibiscus tiliaceus), 
22.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 




106 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



21. Pictinus pacificus, sp. n. (Text-fig. 7). 

Colour. — Variable in colouring, more or less uniformly dull ferruginous 
brown, the antennae legs and connexivum somewhat paler. Membrane smoky 
hyaline, paler at apex of corium. In the female the basal third of the con- 
nexival segments especially laterally are pale sordid yellow while the anterior 
half of the lateral margins is fuscous. 

Structure. — Small, rather elongate. Head as long as broad across eyes, 
somewhat flattened above, apex conical not bifid, tylus not constricted at the 




Text-fig. 7. — Pictinus pacificus, sp. nov. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellura ; 
h, antenna ; c, ventral view of abdomen, showing position of spiracles. 

base, extending well beyond the juga to nearly the middle of the first antennal 
segment ; antenniferous spines oblique, moderately prominent and acute ; 
antennae more than twice as long as head, first segment incrassate nearly half 
as wide in middle as long, second segment oval, third linear gradually thickening 
towards the apex, fourth fusiform thickest towards the apex, its apical two 
thirds grey with pale hairs ; relative lengths of segments, 18 : 11 : 21 : 19, 
$ 17 : 10 : 23 : 19 ; post ocular spines absent ; rostrum more or less slender 
extending almost to the anterior margin of prosterimm, that is just beyond 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



107 



the tuberculate surface of the gula ; the biicculae thin carinate, feebly elevated 
and widely separated, the rostral groove consequently shallow but very broad, 
and not at all completely filled by the rostrum. Pronotum ((^) about one and 
three-fourths wider than long in the middle (65 : 37), lateral margin sinuate, the 
posterior third convex, the centre concave and the anterior third convex ; the 
anterior lateral angles distinctly but obtusely produced anteriorly in front of 
the anterior margin which is slightly emarginate and much narrower than the 
posterior margin (30 : 62) which is also broadly emarginate ; lateral margins 
anteriorly more or less reflexed, disc tuberculate especially the posterior lobe, 
calli slightly elevated, a short longitudinal ridge on each side of the anterior 
lobe between the calli and the reflexed lateral margin. Scutellum triangular 
the sides almost straight, slightly concave towards apex and equal in length to 
the base ; lateral margins slightly reflexed or carinate ; surface transversely 
rugose with a median longitudinal carina. Hemi elytra scarcely reaching genital 
segment ((^), the inner angle of corium and apex of clavus reaching the apex of 
scutellum ; claval suture and corial veins obscurely granulate ; membrane with 
some almost obsolete irregular reticulations but no longitudinal veins, about 
twice as long as the corium. Legs simple, femora unarmed. Abdomen not 
dilated but connexivum broad, venter distinctly convex, lateral margins of 
sixth and seventh segments distinctly concave ; spiracle of second segment 
(first apparent) on the lateral edge of connexivum, remaining spiracles, on its 
ventral surface, the fifth and sixth spiracles somewhat closer to the lateral 
margin than the others. 

Total length : J 3-4 mm., $ 3-7 mm. Breadth across humeral angles : 
^ 1 mm., 5 1-1 mm. 

Upolu :— Malololelei, 2,000 ft., 1 ^ (type) and 1 $ (paratype), 22.iii.1924 ; 
1 9, 16.iii.l924. 

Savaii : — Salailua : 1 21.V.1924 (Bryan); Safune : Rain Forest, 2,000- 
4,000 ft., 1 $ (paratype with head missing), 2. v. 1924 (Bryan). 

This species has been provisionally referred to the genus Pictinus Stal., 
owing to its general resemblance to Pictinus invalidus Bergr. (Seychelles), from 
which it differs however in the more slender and shorter antennae, absence of 
constriction of the tylus before the apex ; absence of post ocular processes, 
more prominent antenniferous spines, flatter head, emargination of posterior 
margin of pronotum and in the j)osition of the first visible spiracle (second 
abdominal) on the lateral edge of the connexivum. It is very probable that 



108 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



P. invalidus Bergr. is generically distinct from the American genus Pictinus 
Stal., but this point cannot be decided without a revision of the group, which is, 
of course, out of the question in the preparation of a faunistic paper of this nature. 
Two males from Malololelei (Upolu) and Salailua (Savaii) respectively, differ 
from the typical species in the relatively longer third antennal segment, slightly 
larger size, and less acute anterior lateral angles of pronotum. Consequently 
these specimens have not been regarded as paratypes. 

22. Ctenoneurus samoanus, sp. n. (Text-fig. 8). 
Colour. — ^. Dark ferruginous brown, vertex of head, posterior margin of 
pronotum, scutellum, corium, and clavus and a spot at the anterior lateral margin 

of each segment of connexivum (more or less 
obscure on seventh and eighth segments), 
brownish-black ; antennae, rostrum, con- 
nexivum, apices of femora, tibiae and tarsi, 
pale ferruginous brown ; membrane smoky 
hyaline, with a large irregular obscure in- 
fuscation in middle of its costal margin, and 
the area just beyond the apex of corium paler. 

Structure. — Head slightly wider than long 
(21 : 18), apical process (tylus) parallel sided, 
scarcely reaching middle of first antennal 
segment, its apex obtuse, slightly bifid ; anten- 
niferous spines rectangular, very short, directed 
laterally not extending anteriorly beyond 
insertion of antennae ; postocular processes 
obsolete ; rostrum extending slightly beyond 
buccal groove, to anterior margin of pro- 
sternum ; antenna much longer than head, 
first segment incrassate nearly half as wide 
as long, second segment short and thickened 
apically, third longest, linear gradually thick- 
ening towards apex, fourth fusiform its apex 
pale ; relative length of segments 10:5:12:10. 
Pronotum slightly longer than head, about twice as wide at base as long (45 : 22) 
and about as wide as long anteriorly (22 : 22) ; anterior margin concave, the 




Text-pig. 8. — Ctenoneurus samoanus, 
sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



109 



anterior lateral angles obtuse but slightly prominent, basal margin in front of 
scutellum truncate ; lateral margins more or less straight, somewhat indented 
in middle between anterior and posterior lobes ; posterior angles broadly rounded 
not wider than costal margins of hemielytra ; disc of anterior lobe with a pair 
of flattened strongly rugose circular prominences and a short longitudinal rugose 
ridge on each side, lateral margins carinate. Scutellum triangular, with margins 
slightly concave, slightly shorter than broad at base (20 : 23), lateral margins 
and base, narrowly ridged, disc with a broad distinct, percurrent median ridge. 
Hemielytra extending to eighth abdominal segment ; corium reaching distinctly 
beyond the apex of the scutellum, its apical margin convex ; basal costal lobe, 
narrow, extending slightly beyond connexivum in an obtuse tooth level with 
the middle of the scutellum ; membrane with obscure semi-obsolete reticulations. 
Second abdominal spiracle on lateral edge of connexivum, the rest ventral, that 
of the seventh placed close to lateral margin ; posterior margin of sixth ventrite 
deeply emarginate in the form of a parabola ; seventh ventrite very long ; 
processes of eighth and the ninth ventrite (pygophor) little prominent. 

Length, 4 mm. Breadth across humeral angles, 1-5 mm. 

Upolu :— Malololelei : 1 (type), 25.iv.1924. 

Savaii :— Safune : Rain Eorest, 2,000-4,000 ft., I 8.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Readily distinguished from C. hocJistetteri Mayr. (New Zealand), C. lifuanus 
Montr. (N. Caledonia) and C. bergrothianus Kirk. (Fiji), by its much smaller 
size. Apparently closely related to C. fungicola Kirk. (Fiji), from which it 
differs by relative lengths of the antennal segments. 

23. Carventus kirkaldyi,* sp. n. (Text-fig. 9). 
Carventus sp. ? Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 351, 1908. 

Colour. — 9- Ps-le ferruginous brown, somewhat darker over the head, 
anterior lobe of pronotum, and scutellum ; eyes reddish, antennae (first and 
second segments), anterior processes of head and lateral processes of pronotum, 
fulvous-yellow ; legs pale fulvous-yellow, apices of femora and the tarsi fuscous ; 
apex of second antennal segment moderately infuscate. 

Structure. — Head about as long as broad (26 : 27), apical processes long, 
extending slightly beyond middle of first antennal segment ; consisting of two 

* This species is dedicated to the memory of G. W. Kirkaldy, in recognition of his work on 
the Fijian Heteroptera. 



110 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



elongate widely separated lobes somewhat convergent towards their apices ; 
antenniferous spines long, directed anteriorly, parallel to apical processes, 
extending to slightly more than one-third the length of the first antennal seg- 
ment ; post ocular processes prominent, directed slightly posteriorly, not 
extending laterally beyond the eyes ; antennae with first segment long and 
slender but much thicker than second segment which is linear ; relative length 

of segments (16 : 11, third and fourth segments mis- 
sing in type specimen) ; rostrum very short, not 
extending beyond middle of eyes. Pronotum dis- 
tinctly broader than long (56 : 40), strongly narrowed 
anteriorly with a distinct collar, anterior margin con- 
cave ; median lateral j^rocess of anterior lobe broad, 
flattened, spatulate ; anterior lateral process of pos- 
terior lobe also spatulate but narrower and slightly 
longer than the former ; posterior margin in front of 
scutellum convex, two lateral posteriorly directed lobes 
on each side of scutellum. Scutellum twice as wide at 
base as long (30 : 16), sides straight, widely ridged, 
disc without a median carina, apex obtusely rounded. 
Hemielytra extending to base of seventh abdominal 
sternite ; corium broad, its apex extending almost to 
the middle of abdomen, feebly elevated above mem- 
brane, from which, however, it is well delimited ; basal 
costal lobe almost obsolete, feebly prominent ; mem- 
brane very long and moderately broad, shining with 
moderately distinct longitudinal veins forming several 
irregular cells. Abdomen distinctly widened posteriorly each segment of con- 
nexivum distinctly widening posteriorly so that it overlaps the base of lateral 
margin of the succeeding segment in a more or less obtuse angle, the apical angle 
of the seventh (sixth apparent) segment scarcely reaching the apex of genital 
segment (ninth) ; spiracle of second segment placed ventrally, those of remaining 
segments on lateral margin. 

Length, 6-2 mm. Breadth across humeral angles, 1-9 mm. 
Upolu :— Vailima : 1 ? (type), 25.X.1924. 

Allied to C. denticollis Stal. (Mysol) but much more robust, head wider, 
apical processes not contiguous, lateral processes of pronotum wider and spatulate, 




Text - fig. 9. — Carventus 
hirkaldyi, sp. n. : dorsal 
view (legs omitted). 



HEMIPTERA— HBTEROPTERA. 



Ill 



basal costal lobe of corium much less prominent. This is probably the species 
recorded from Fiji without a name by Kirkaldy in 1908. 

Family Neididae (Berytidae). 

24. Protacanthus * pacificus, sp. n. (Text-fig. 10). 

Colour. — and $. Anterior lobe of head (in front of ocelli) including eyes, 
black, intensely shining, posterior lobe fulvous flecked with brown behind ocelli 
and at sides of neck ; rostrum yellomsh-white, the labrum, extreme base of 




Text-fig. 10. — Protacanthus pacificus, sp. n. : lateral view of head and thorax, showing median 

pronotal keel. 



second and third and apex of fourth segments dark brown ; antennae translucent 
yellowish-white multiannulate with dark brown, apical three-fourths of fourth 
segment dark brown, base of first segment and antenniferous tubercle opaque 
white. Pronotum fulvous anteriorly, gradually shading through dark brown 

* Bergroth {Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXII, p. 179, 191.3), on the strength of Distant's description 
and figure, erected a new genus Auchenophis for Metacanthus hihamatus Dist., recorded from 
Ceylon. Bergroth's description, apparently based on Distant's inaccurate figure (Entomologist, xliv, 
p. 105, 1911), is misleading. The first rostral segment does not extend beyond the base of the 
head. Auchenophis is, in fact, synonymous with Protacanthus Uhler, Distant's species being 
generically identical with the type of Protacanthus decorus Uhler, now preserved in the British 
Museum Collection. 



112 



INSECTS OP SAMOA. 



to black posteriorly, the extreme reflexed basal margin on each side white, 
' ventral sides brown. The anterior collar at the sides (narrowly), and the spines 
on each side of the dorsal surface of the anterior collar, white. Scutellar spine 
white, pro-, meso-, and meta-sterna pale yellowish-brown. Hemielytra colour- 
less hyaline. Legs yellowish-white, the femora and tibiae multi-annulate with 
brown, the femoral annulations incomplete on the under side ; apical halves of 
tibiae brown. Abdomen pale green. 

Structure. — Head seen from above slightly longer than wide across the 
eyes (33 : 31), three-fourths the length of the pronotum, intensely shining with 
a few scattered, short, erect hairs, especially at apex ; rostrum extending beyond 
the hind coxae almost to second abdominal segment, relative length of segments 
35 : 17 : 20 : 22 ; antennae longer than body, relative length of segments 
130 : 66 : 48 : 42. Pronotum about as long as broad across humeral angles 
(45 : 46), deeply and more or less regularly punctate, humeral angles sub- 
globosely swollen (much more so than in P. decorus Uhl.), the median longitudinal 
carina on disc very distinct, posteriorly strongly elevated between the tumescent 
humeral lobes, and dilated to form an elongate, lobe-like protrusion ; spines of 
anterior collar long and robust, about as long as head is wide between eyes, 
almost erect with a slight anterior-lateral inclination. Scutellar spine erect 
with a distinct posterior inclination on apical two-thirds ; about one-fourth 
longer than pronotal spines. Rostrum and venter sparsely covered with short 
and (venter) long erect hairs. Hemielytra extending well beyond the apex of 
abdomen. 

Total length including hemielytra, 4 mm. Breadth across humeral angles, 
0-72 mm. 

Samoa : — Apia : 1 larva and 2 adults, 13.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 
1 specimen, 20.xi.l924. 

Fiji: — Nausori : 1 specimen, x.l926 (R. Veitch) : Lautoka : 1 9 specimen 
(type), 9.vii.l921 (W. Greenwood) ; 2 specimens, 22.xi.1921 (R. Veitch). 

Easily distinguished from Protacanthus decorus Uhl., and P. bihamatus 
Distant, by the strongly elevated median lobe in the middle of the entirely black 
posterior third of the pronotum. 



HEMIPTEEA— HETEROPTERA. 



113 



Family Lygaeidae. 
Subfamily Lygaeinae. 

25. Pyrrhobaphus leucurus (F.). 

Cimex leucurus Fabricius, Mant. Ins., II, p. 299, 1787. 
Pyrrhobaphus leucurus Stal, Hemipt. Fabr., I, p. 73, 1868. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, Il.iv.l922, 1 specimen, 30.vii.l922, and 1 
specimen, I4.X.1922 (Armstrong) ; Malololelei : 4 specimens, 2,000 ft., 
14-30. vi.l924 ; Lalomanu : I specimen, xi.l924. 

Recorded from Ceylon, the Philippines, Woodlark Is., and Fiji. There are 
also specimens in the British Museum from Queensland (A. J. Turner), Celebes 
(J. C. van Hasselt), and New Hebrides (J. J. Walker). 

26. Nesostethus niger, sp. n. (Text-fig. 11). 

Colour. — Entirely black except for abdomen which is orange-red with an 
obscure median dorsal stripe, and some obscure ventral lateral markings brown. 
Inner margins of acetabulae, posterior and lateral margins of metapleura and 
rim of metasternal orifice, blackish-brown. Head, rostrum, antennae, and legs 
shining, the head intensely so, with a faint bluish sheen ; ocelli reddish-brown. 
Pubescence sparse and extremely short, giving a glabrous effect, except on the 
two apical antennal joints, apices of tibiae, and the tarsi where pubescence is 
longer, more dense and paler. Pronotum, scutellum and hemielytra dull black. 

Structure. — Head almost as long as broad across the eyes (45 : 48) ; 
eyes rather prominent, ocelli about three times as far from one another as from 
the eyes ; first antennal segment extending about half its length beyond the 
apex of head, relative length of segments 27 : 70 : 50 : 65 ; rostrum extending 
to posterior coxae, relative length of segments 30 : 34 : 25 : 25 ; bucculae feebly 
elevated. Pronotum rather elongate, length is to posterior width as 55 : 75, 
strongly narrowed anteriorly, anterior width is to posterior width as 42 : 75 ; 
lateral margins practically straight, anterior margin strongly emarginate ; 
anterior disc around scars sparsely, very obscurely punctate. Scutellum 
equilateral, with a T-shaped ridge. Hemielytra not reaching apex of abdomen ; 
veins very prominent. Posterior margin of metapleuron straight, perpendicular 
to the lateral margin. Legs comparatively long, the femora unarmed almost as 
long as the tibiae, the tarsi long. Disc of venter sparsely covered with rather 
long very line hairs becoming shorter and denser over genital plates. 
II. 3. 3 



1,14 INSECTS OF SAMOA. 

Total length, 9-5 mm. Breadth across humeral angles, 2-7 mm. 
1 $ (type), Samoa, iii.-viii.1921 (O'Connor). 

General appearance of a black Leptocoris with a shining blue-black head. 




Text-fig. 11. — Nesostethus niger, sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted); 

but ocelli and venation of membrane indicate its position in the Lygaeidae. 
The generic position of this species is a matter of some doubt. Stal has split 
up the old genus Lygaeus into numerous genera and subgenera, based mainly 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



115 



on colour characters, so that without a revision of these genera it is impossible 
to place entirely black species such as the f)resent. 

In his catalogue of the Heniiptera of Fiji, Kirkaldy wrongly referred two 
species to the genus Stalagmostethus Stal. The first, Lygaeus mactans Stal., 
is the genotype of the perfectly distinct Melanerythrus Stal. The second, 
S. ornatus, described by Kirkaldy as a new Fijian species, differs (with the 
exception of the relative length of the second and fourth antennal segments), 
in almost every respect from the genotypical species Stalagmostethus furcatus F. 
Stalagmostethus St§.l., is in fact an African genus. Kirkaldy apparently sus- 
pecting his own generic determination, pointed out certain differences and 
suggested a new subgeneric name Nesostethus (type S. ornatus Kirk.). This is 
evidently a perfectly good genus, and judging by Kirkaldy's description, and 
having regard to the similarity of the Fijian and Samoan faunae, the present 
Samoan species has been referred to it, in spite of the fact that there are certain 
differences which Stal and Kirkaldy have regarded as of subgeneric importance. 
This course seems to be preferable (for the time being at any rate) to that of 
creating still another genus. 

27. Graptostethus nigriceps Stal. 

Graptostetlms servus (F.) var. nigriceps, Stal, Enum. Hemipt., IV, p. 117, 1874. 
Graptostethus servus Kirk., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 354, 1908. 

Upolu : — Apia: 1 specimen, lO.v.1922 (Armstrong). 

Savaii : — Safune : Rain Forest, 2,000-4,000 ft., 1 specimen, 4.V.1924 
(Bryan). 

Tutuila :— 1,000 ft., 1 specimen, 13.X.1918 (Kellers). 

Originally recorded by Stal from the Pacific Islands, Guam, Ascension and 
Fiji. In the British Museum are specimens from New Hebrides (J. J. Walker) 
and New Caledonia (J. J. Walker), which appear to represent this species. 

In spite of a certain amount of variation exhibited amongst themselves, 
the Samoan specimens have all been referred to G. servus var. nigriceps Stal. 
The chief distinctive character of this variety is the entirely black head (except 
the bucculae, which are pallid), and since Kirkaldy's G. vitiensis also differs 
from typical G. servus F. in the black head (including the hvLcculae, fide Kirk.), 
it is quite possible that vitiensis Kirk, is synonymous with nigriceps Stal. 
There are, however, certain characters in which Kii'kaldy's species appears to 
differ. He distinguishes vitiensis from servus mainly by the length of the 



116 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



rostrum which extends beyond the hind coxae, but all the Samoan specimens 
agree in this character which, however, is not mentioned by Stal. The specimens 
from Savaii and Tutuila have the clavus and corium partly infuscate, more or 
less as in typical G. servus F., but the specimen from Upolu has both clavus 
and corium free of infuscation. Stal states that sometimes in this variety the 
posterior lobe of the pronotum and the hemielytra are free of black markings 
and this is the form which occurs in the New Hebrides and New Caledonia. 
Such specimens approach G. inornatus Dist. (Andai, Malay Arch.) in which, 
however, the head is red with the tylus only black. The specimen from Savaii 
has the head red more or less suffused with brown but differs from G. servus in 
having the tylus red not black and in the long rostrum which extends well beyond 
the hind coxae. G. nigriceps Stal. also differs from G. servus in the following 
specific characters. — The two small black spots on pronotum fused with anterior 
transverse black band. Posterior lobe of pronotum without a transverse brown 
band. Basal angle of membrane, below apex of clavus, black not white. Red 
lateral margin of venter equally wide throughout, not distinctly widening 
towards base of abdomen. 

The true G. servus F., apparently does not occur in Fiji, Kirkaldy's record 
being based on Stal's var. nigriceps, which, as has been shown, is a distinct species. 

28. Nysius (Nysius) pacificus, sp. n. (Text-fig. 12). 
? Nysius, sp. Kirk., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 355, 1908. 

Colour and Structure. — Head strongly deflexed, long, about three-fourths 
as long as wide across eyes (26 : 34), with the ocelli twice as far from one another 
as from the eyes, strongly rugosely punctate ; black with the eyes, a spot at 
base of vertex between the ocelli, a longitudinal stripe down the tylus, the 
bucculae and the gula on each side below the antenniferous tubercle, pale yellow ; 
an irregular stripe extending from the apex of each of the juga to the sides of 
the yellow spot at the base of the vertex, and the base of the tylus, ferruginous ; 
basal joint of antennae yellow with apical annulation, a strij)e on the dorsal 
side, and a few spots on the ventral side, dark fuscous ; second and third joints 
pale ferruginous somewhat darker towards the apices, fourth joint fusiform, 
ferruginous ; relative lengths, 22 : 55 : 47 : 58 (62 divisions = 1 mm.) ; rostrum 
extending to apices of hind coxae, ochraceous, shading to ferruginous apically, 
the ultimate joint black ; bucculae extending almost to anterior* margin of 
prosternum. Pronotum anteriorly as wide as long in the middle, posteriorly 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



117 



one- and two-thirds as wide as at the anterior margin ; strongly punctate, dull 
yellow with a transverse fascia across the anterior disc extending on each side 
to the anterior lateral angles, a spot just within each of the humeral angles, 




Text-fig. 12. — Nysius pacificus, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellum 
6, lateral view of head and thorax ; c, hemielytron. 

and six longitudinal fasciae extending from the posterior margin to the anterior 
transverse band, the two central ones much thinner than the others and con- 
verging anteriorly (Text-fig. 12, a). Scutellum strongly punctate, except for a 
median longitudinal laevigate ridge ; dull yellow, with the base (narrowly) and 



118 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



a broad median longitudinal fascia, black. Pleura moderately strongly punctate, 
black ; the anterior margin and the outer posterior angle (except for a small 
brown spot just within the angle), of the proplem'on, all the acetabular areas, 
the auriculate metasternal orifice and the surrounding area (mostly), dull yellow ; 
posterior margin of metasternum pallid, laminate and broadly emarginate, but 
with the outer angles rounded and not prominently angular. Hemielytra pale 
yellowish-grey, the inner angle of the clavus, the claval commissure, three 
elongate spots along apical margin of corium, one at each end, and one in the 
middle, dark brown, the outer sector and a spot on the inner sector of the corium 
obscurely fuscous ; rather less than the basal third of the total length of the 
costal margin of corium (20 : 70) parallel with axis of body and provided with 
fringe of grey hairs ; thence costal margin gradually dilated ; membrane hyaline 
more or less obscurely marked with brown. 

Abdomen below imjjunctate, yellow with the usual double, more or less 
interrupted fascia down each side, the disc at the base and a narrow stripe 
over the basal two-thirds of the ovipositor brownish-black. Legs yellow ; the 
coxae and basal parts of the femora much brighter : femora spotted with 
brownish-black ; the apex of the first tarsal joint and the whole of the third 
fuscous. The whole insect more or less covered with shaggy grey pubescence. 

Total length, 4-7 mm. Breadth across humeral angles, 1-6. mm. 

New Hebrides — Efate Is., Havannah Harbour, 1 $ (type), 13. vi. 1900 (J. J. 
Walker). 

Samoa: — Tutuila : 1,100-1,200 ft., 20 specimens, iv.l918 ; centre of Is., 
900-1,200 ft., 1 specimen, 30.vi.l918 ; 1,000 ft., 8 specimens, 25.viii.1918 ; 
1,000-1,200 ft., 4 specimens, xii.1918 (Kellers) : Fagasa : 1 specimen, 9.ix.l923 
(Swezey and Wilder). 

This very distinct species is allied to N. caledoniae Dist. (New Caledonia), 
but is a larger insect with different colour markings, and the antennal segments 
of different relative lengths. 

Its absence from Upolu and Savaii is remarkable. 

Subfamily Geocorinae. 

29. Germalus samoanus, sp. n. (Text-figs. 13, 14, and 16). 

Colour.— and Head bright yellow shading to orange towards apex, an 
elongate triangular mark extendmg from near the apex of tylus to the base of 
I he vertex and widening to include the ocelli, a short broad stripe along posterior 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 119 

half of inner margin of eye, a short stripe extending from insertion of antenna 
almost to the base of the tylus, a narrow median stripe on under side of head 
between bucculae and the labrum, black (in fresh specimens the dorsal triangular 
mark is covered with white powder and appears blue grey) : eyes red ; basal 




Text-fig. 13. — Germalus samoanus, sp. nov. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 



segment of antenna yellow, with a fuscous dorsal stripe and several small fuscous 
spots on ventral side, second segment fuscous with a subapical annulation and 
extreme apex pallid, third segment fuscous with a broad obscure pallid subapical 
annulation, fourth segment fuscous ; bucculae and rostrum pale yellow ; dorsal 
surface of second, third, and fourth rostral segments ferruginous, apical half of 



120 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



fourtli black. Pronotuin anteriorly bright yellow posteriorly yellowish-grey, 
a broad transverse band anteriorly across the pronotal scars, extending posteriorly 
in a median narrow stripe, blue-grey or black ; a pair of irregular spots one at 
each humeral angle but not reaching the extreme angle, a small spot in middle 
of posterior margin more or less fusing with end of median longitudinal stripe, 
and a small spot on each side of the lower half of the median stripe, black or 
brownish-black ; scattered punctures dark brown, lateral carina pale yellow. 
Scutellum bluish-grey or black with a bright yellow Y-shaped laevigate area 
extending to apex of scutellum. Propleura and sternum blue-grey or black, 
the sternum anteriorly yellowish-white, the acetabulae (ambulacra) and posterior 
margins of pleura broadly, pale yellow ; mesopleura blue-grey or black, the 
ambulacra pale yellow, the posterior margins of the pleura narrowly dull yellow, 
mesosternum shining black ; metapleura, dull blackish-brown, the inner angle 
below orifice and a longitudinal lateral stripe fulvous, auriculate lobes of orifices 
yellow, ambulacra and posterior lateral angles of pleura, yellowish- white. 
Hemielytra hyaline, tinted cinereous, clavus black or blue-grey with an obscure 
fulvous median stripe on basal half ; costal margin very narrowly, a row of 
punctures along outer vein, apical half of inner vein and apical margin of corium 
dark brown ; membrane hyaline with an obscure fuscous median stripe. Legs 
pale yellow ; femora sparsely covered with brown spots, apices of tibiae and tarsal 
segments infuscate. Abdominal tergites yellow tinted with red, with a few 
irregular brown flecks ; whole of apical tergite overlying pygophor, and the 
posterior lateral angles of the connexival segments, black. Venter yellow, 
with a broad lateral reddish suffusion, with its inner margin infuscate, especially 
posteriorly where the infuscation develops into several brown marks on the 
fifth, sixth, and seventh ventrites ; ovipositor sheath in $ black ; eighth ventrite 
in with a median brown spot ; pygophor in ^ yellow with a brown spot on 
each side towards its base. 

Structure. — Head porrect, tylus not strongly deflexed, as in G. pacijicus Kirk 
(Fiji), about three-fourths the length of ^^ronotum (24 : 33) and about as long as 
half the width across eyes (24 : 50) ; eyes larger than in G. pacijicus about equally 
broad but much longer, less convergent anteriorly and much less pedunculate. 
Relative length of antennal segments 10 : 29 : 18 : 19 (c^). Rostrum extending 
to hind coxae. Pronotum about two-thirds as long as wide across humeral 
angles (33 : 47) and slightly longer than wide anteriorly (33 : 27) ; anterior and 
posterior lobes rather more distinctly separated than in G. pacijicus by an obscure 



HEMIPTERA— HETEKOPTERA. 



12i 



transverse depression behind tlie pronotal scars, lateral margins more distinctly 
concave ; disc less regularly punctate. Scutellum more fiat than in G. pacijicus 
the yellow laevigate area much less elevated. Apical abdominal tergite over- 
lapping pygophor, more strongly narrowed apically than in G. pacificus, not at 
all truncate apically. Pilosity of venter in male much shorter and less dense 
than in G. pacificus. 




Text-fig. 14. — ^Lateral view of head and thorax of : a, Germalus samoamis, sp. n. ; 

b, Germalus buxtoni, sp. n. 



Total length : (^5.4 mm., $ 5-7 mm. Breadth across humeral angles : 
1-6 mm., 5 1-7 mm. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 13.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 2 specimens, 
ii.1924,1 specimen, xii. 1924, 1 specimen, i.l925, 1 specimen, 28. iv. 1925, 1 specimen, 
V.1925 ; Malololelei : 1 larva, 24. ii. 1924, 1 specimen, iv.l924, 2 specimens, 
25.iv.1924, 1 specimen, 2,000 ft., 17.vi.l924, 1 specimen, 2,000 ft., 14-30.vi.l924, 
1 specimen, 2,000 ft., 23. xi. 1924, 3 specimens, 18.iv.l925, 1 specimen, 2,000 ft., 



122 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



xii.1925 (type) ; 2 specimens, 20. vi. 1924 (Armstrong) ; Vailima : 1 specimen, 
25.X.1924; Mulifanua : 1 specimen, 16.vii.l925 (Wilder) ; 1 specimen, 760-900 ft., 
iv.l918. 

Tiitdla :— Centre of Island: 900-1,200 ft., 30.vi.l918, 1 specimen, 
21.vii.l918, 1 specimen, 1,000 ft., 25. viii. 191 8 (Kellers) ; Pago Pago : 1 specimen, 
18.iv.l924 (Bryan) ; 1 specimen, 13.ix.l922 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Manua :— Tan, 1 larva, 20.ii.l926 (Judd). 

Allied to the Fijian G. pacificus Kirk, but differs in the longer more porrect 
head, larger eyes, less transverse pronotum, less convex scutellum, narrower 
eighth tergite in the male, shorter and less dense pilosity on venter of male, 
absence of two black longitudinal stripes on dorsum of abdomen, presence of 
dark spot on each side of median stripe of pronotum, etc. 

30. Germalus buxtoni,* sp. n. (Text-figs. 14, 15, and 16). 

• Colour. — Head pale yellow, a narrow longitudinal percurrent stripe down 
middle (sometimes dilated in middle to form a fuscous cross band), a small 
spot on each side of apex of tylus, a variable short oblique spot on each side of 
head extending inwards from base of antenna, and a triangular spot on each side of 
base of head, each with its apex surrounding ocellus (these last two spots usually 
fusing with the median stripe along the basal margin), black ; eyes red, first 
antennal segment pale yellow apical third fuscous dorsally, remaining segments in- 
fuscate, the apical third of second segment sometimes pallid ; rostrum pale yellow, 
its apex infuscate. Pronotum pale sordid yellow, an obscure median percurrent 
longitudinal stripe, dilated into a distinct spot at the anterior and posterior 
margins and sometimes in middle, a pair of irregular spots at each humeral angle 
enclosing an irregular pallid spot on the posterior margin adjoining the actual 
angle, dark brown ; punctures fuscous causing a more or less fuscous suffusion 
around pronotal scars and in middle of disc of posterior lobe ; lateral carina pale 
yellow except at base where it is suffused by the fuscous humeral spot. Scutellum 
fuscous with the usual yellow Y-shaped laevigate area extending to apex of 
scutellum. Pro-, meso- and meta-pleura pale fulvous suffused with black ; 
punctures fuscous ; the ambulacral areas, the posterior margins of pleura and the 
posterior lateral angle of meta-pleuron whitish-yellow ; meso-sternum pale sordid 
yellow. Hemielytra including membrane similar to those in G. samoanus but 
infuscation of clavus restricted to anal margin, claval commissure and punctures 

* Dedicated to Mr. P. A. Buxton the senior collector. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



123 



along claval suture. Legs as in G, samoanus. Abdominal tergites orange- 
yellow with a large anteriorly narrowed black spot at apex of abdomen covering 
the whole of apical tergite ; connexivum yellow with a black spot at the posterior 
lateral angles of each segment ; venter yellow, fulvous at base and down middle 




Text-fig. 15. — Germalus buxtoni, sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 



of sides, sometimes with an obscure blackish mark on each segment in middle 
of fulv^ous suffusion ; posterior lateral angles of connexival segments usually 
blackish at least posteriorly. Male pygophor entirely black ; ovipositor sheath, 
in female, brown at base. 



124 



INSECTS OP SAMOA. 



Structure. — Head as in G. samoanus but even more porrect, about three- 
fourths tlie length of pronotum (23 : 33) and about as long as half the width across 
eyes (23 : 47) ; eyes distinctly smaller than in G. samoanus but larger than in 
G. pacificus. Eelative lengths of antennal segments 11:32:23:21 ((^) ; 
rostrum scarcely extending beyond the middle coxae. Pronotum about two- 
thirds as long as wide across humeral angles (33 : 48) and slightly longer than 
wide anteriorly (33 : 28) ; lateral margins much more distinctly concavely 
sinuate than in G. samoanus, the lateral carina much narrower anteriorly ; the 
anterior angles less siiddenl}' rounded ; transverse impression between anterior 
and posterior lobes much more distinct especially laterally ; puncturation slightly 
more coarse, less scattered, punctures more dense around scars and on middle 




Text-fig. 1G. — Dorsal view of apical abdominal tergite overlapping male pygoplior : a, Germalus 
samoanus, sp. n. ; h, Germalus huxtoni, sp. n. 



of disc of posterior lobe. Scutellum and hemielvtra as in G. samoanus. Apical 
abdominal tergite overlapping pygophor in much broader even than in 
G. pacificus. Pilosity of venter in ,^ much longer and more dense than in 
G. samoanus but not so pronounced as in G. pacificus. 

Total length : 5-7 mm., ^6-3 mm. Breadth across humeral angles : 
1-6 mm., $ 1-8 mm. 

Upolu : — Malololelei : 2,000 ft., 1 larva, 10.iii.l924, 1 specimen (teneral), 
iv.l924, 2 specimens, 20. vi. 1924, 1 specimen, 25. vi. 1924, 1 specimen, 14-30. vi. 1924, 
1 specimen, 23. xi. 1924, 12 specimens (including type (^), xii.1925. 

Savaii : — 1 specimen, 1,000 ft., 21 .xi. 1925; Safune : 1 specimen, 15.V.1924 
(Bryan) ; Salailua : 1 larva, Eain Forest, 2,000-4,000 ft., 17.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Allied to G. savioamis but differing in the slightly larger size, different 
colour markings of head and pronotum, shape and ]Miucturation of pronotum 
longer antennae (third segment longer than fourth), shorter rostrum, etc. 



HBMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



125 



Subfamily Cyminae. 

Neocrompus, gen. ii. 

Head short, strongly punctate, distinctly deflexed, about two-thirds as 
long as wide across eyes (13 : 20), much shorter and more deflexed than in 
Ischnorhynchus and Crompus ; eyes prominent, extending laterally about half 
their diameter beyond anterior angles of pronotum ; bucculae moderately 
elevated more or less triangular, short not extending posteriorly beyond insertion 
of antennae ; rostrum extending beyond coxae to base of abdomen, the first 
segment long extending beyond gula on to disc of prosternum ; antennae com- 
paratively short about as long as head pronotum and scutellum together ; basal 
segment extending slightly beyond apex of head ; ocelli as in IscJmorhynchus. 
Pronotum densely coarsely punctate, relatively short, slightly more than half 
as long in middle as wide across humeral angles (4-7 : 81) and slightly less than 
half as wide anteriorly as posteriorly (35 : 81) ; lateral margins straight with a 
feebly elevated lateral ridge or caring,, much less prominent than in Crompus ; 
anterior margin concave, posterior margin convex, humeral angles rounded ; 
disc distinctly convex, anterior region in front of cicatricial depression, some- 
what swollen. Scutellum triangular, equilateral, strongly punctate ; lobe of 
metasternal orifice moderately prominent as in Crom.pus but much less so than 
in Ischnorhynchus . Corium extending to apex of abdomen {<^), costal margin 
strongly dilated and along basal half reflexed ; clavus with three rows of 
punctures, the two nearest the scutellum rather irregular ; corium with a row 
of large deep punctures along the basal half of the inner edge of the dilated costal 
area, two rows of fine punctures along the claval suture and cubital vein and 
scattered punctures on the area between M and Rs. Anterior femora only 
moderately incrassate (scarcely more so than the intermediate and posterior 
femora), armed with a. single short spine placed about one-fifth of the length of 
femur from apex ; basal segment of posterior tarsus slightly shorter than second 
and third segments together. Seventh ventrite in male long, laminately pro- 
duced to cover pygophor as in Crompus. 

Genotype : — Neocrompus heller si, sp. n. 

Allied to Crompus Stal and Ischnorhynchus Fieber, but differs from both in 
the shorter more deflexed head, short triangular bucculae, long first rostral 
segment, shorter more transverse pronotum with straight lateral margins with 



126 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



percurrent but very feebly elevated lateral carinae, in the presence of a single 
tootli on underside of front femur and in the much stronger and denser punctura- 
tion of the head pronotum and scutellum. 



31. Neocrompus kellersi,* sp. n. (Text-fig. 17). 

Colour. — Head black covered dorsally with depressed, golden hairs arising 
from the punctures ; apex of tylus and bucculae brown, eyes dark ferruginous 




Text-fig. 17. — Neocrompus kellersi, sp. n. : a, dorsal view (legs omitted) ; b, lateral view of 

head and prothorax. 



brown ; rostrum ochraceous with apex black ; antennae ochraceous covered 
with rather long pale hairs, apex of second segment, base and apex of third and 
whole of fourth, ferruginous brown. Pronotum ferruginous brown, covered 
with strong depressed golden hairs arising from punctures, the cicatricial depres- 
sion covered by a black band thin in middle but widening laterally. Prosternum, 



* This species is dedicated to the collector, Lt. H. C. Kellers, U.S. Navy. 



HEMIPTERA— HBTEROPTERA. 



127 



acetabulae and lateral angle of propleuron ferruginous, disc of propleuron black. 
Scutellum ferruginous shading to blackish towards base, pilosity as on pronotum 
but with a few long erect hairs. Meso- and meta-pleura black, acetabulae 
ferruginous ; posterior lateral angular lobe of metapleuron, white. Hemielytra 
greyish- white, semi-hyaline, with a few scattered erect hairs especially on clavus, 
punctures brown ; membrane hyaline. Venter dark, shining ferruginous 
brown with short depressed silvery hairs more or less scattered on disc, but in 
distinct patches along lateral margins of segments ; hairs much longer and more 
dense along posterior margin of seventh ventrite, the posterior lateral angles 
of which are greyish and more or less hyaline. Legs bright yellow apices of tarsi 
and claws brown. 

First segment of antenna slightly incrassate, second and third segments 
linear but thickest at apices, fourth segment fusiform ; relative lengths of seg- 
ments : 16 : 29 : 20 : 36. 

Total length : o 2-8 mm., 9 3-0 mm. Breadth across humeral angles : 
^ 1-2 mm., $ 1-4 mm. 

Tutuila :— 2,141 ft., 2 (including type), and 1 $, 22.ix.1918 (Kellers) ; 
1,000 ft., 1 13.X.1918 (Kellers). 

Subfamily Rhypaeochrominae. 
32. Clerada * apicicornis Sign. 

Clerada apicicornis Signoret in Maillard's Notes sur Vile de la Reunion, Ins. {Annexe J, Hemipteres), 
p. 28, 1862. 

Clerada apicicornis Kirkaldy, Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc, I, p. 151, 1907. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 17.vii.l924, 1 specimen, xii.1924, and 1 specimen, 
X.1925. 

Apparently Holotropical in distribution. Recorded from Venezuela, Mexico? 
Cuba, Jamaica, St. Vincent, Seychelles, Reunion, Bengal, Ceylon, Siamese 
Malay States, Indo-China, Celebes, Queensland, Hawaii, Samoa, and Society 
Is. (Raiatea), but strangely enough not from Fiji. Species of the genus Clerada 
are known to inhabit the nests of rodents and other small mammals. 



* Clerada mdnuta China {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), XIV, p. 435, 1924), described from a 
specimen taken in Rodriguez, in the Mascarene region, is apparently identical with Reclada moesta 
B. White {Ann. Nat. Hist., (5), I, p. 370, 1878), a Hawaiian species, the type of which has now 
been examined. This is a most extraordinary case of discontinuous distribution. 



128 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



33. Orthaea paclfica (Stal). 

Pamera pacijica Stal, Enuni. Hemipt., IV, p. 149, 1874. 

Orthaea pacifica Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 358, 1908. 
? Orthaea vincta Kirkaldy (nec Say), torn, cit., p. 357, pi. 4, figs. 1 and 2, 1908. 
Pamera pacifica Cheesman, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1927, p. 157, 1927. 

Upolu : — Apia : 2 larvae, I2.ix.l923, on Bermuda grass (Swezey and Wilder) ; 

1 specimen, i.l924, 18 specimens and 4 larvae, ii.l924, 9 specimens, iii.1924, 

2 specimens, v.1924, and 1 larva, vi.l924 ; Aleipata : 3 specimens, iv.l924, 1 larva 
(Lalomanu), xi.l924 ; Afiamalu : 1 specimen, ll.vii.l923 (Wilder) ; Malololelei : 
2,000 ft., 2 specimens, 12. iii.1924, 3 specimens, 22. iii.1924, 2 specimens, iv.l924, 
5 specimens, vi.l924. 

Savaii : — Safune : Lowlands to 1,000 ft., 1 larva, 30.iv.l924, 1 specimen, 
1. v.1924, 1 specimen, 4.V.1924 (Bryan) ; Lower Forest 1,000-2,000 ft., 2 speci- 
mens, 5. v.1924, 1 specimen, 9. v. 1924, 1 specimen, 15. v.1924 (Bryan) ; Salailua : 
Rain Forest, 2,000-4,000 ft., 1 specimen, 17. v.1924, 1 specimen and 2 larvae, 
19. v.1924, 1 specimen, 22. v.1924 (Bryan). 

Tutuila : 1,100-1,200 ft., 1 specimen, iv.l918, 760-900 ft., 24 specimens, 
iv.1918, 900-1,200 ft., centre of island, 3 specimens, 30.vi.l918, 1,200 ft., 2 speci- 
mens, xii.1918 (Kellers) ; Leone E,oad : 1 specimen, 18. ix. 1923, 1 specimen and 
1 larva, 7.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 2 specimens and 1 larva, 19.ii.l924 
(Bryan) ; Pago Pago : 2 specimens, 0-300 ft., iv.1918 (Kellers) ; 2 specimens, 
9.ix.l923, and 4 specimens, 20. ix. 1923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 4 specimens, 
12.iv.l924, 2 specimens, 10.iv.l924, 1 larva, 18.iv.l924 (Bryan) ; 

Manna Is. : — Tan : 1 larva, 27.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

This species lias been recorded under tlie name pacifica Stal from Fiji, 
Tahiti, Raiatea and Bora Bora. Considerable confusion, however, exists with 
regard to the closely allied and so-called cosmopolitan species Orthaea vincta 
Say. It is fairly certain that the existing synonymy of the eight or nine species 
under 0. vincta, is inaccurate, and it seems very probable that all the Pacific 
Island records belong to 0. pacifica Stal. Kirkaldy {loc. cit.) records 0. vincta 
as occurring in Fiji and synonymises with it his Hawaiian 0. periplanios, but 
does not state on what grounds he relinquishes his former identification {Proc. 
Haiv. Ent. Soc, I, pp. 150-151, 1907) as 0. pacijica Stal. If Orthaea parvula 
Dallas has been correctly synonymised with 0. vincta then, judging by Dallas' 
N. American type specimen, the Pacific Island species (0. pacifica) is perfectly 
distinct from 0. vincta. 



SEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



129 



34. Orthaea limbata (Stal). 

Pamera limbata Stal, Enum. Hemipt., IV, p. 149, 1874. 

Orthaea limhata Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 357, 1908. 

Savaii : — Salailiia : Lowlands to 1,000 ft., 5 specimens, 16.V.1924; Lower 
Forest 1,000-2,000 ft., 4 specimens, 17.V.1924, 1 specimen, 20.V.1924, 1 specimen, 
21.V.1924 (Bryan); Safune : Lowlands to 1,000 ft., 1 specimen, 30.iv.l924 
(Bryan) ; Rain Forest, 2,000-4,000 ft., 1 specimen, 3.V.1924, 4 specimens, 4.V.1924 
(Bryan) ; Lower Forest, 1,000-2,000 ft.,1 specimen, 5.V.1924, 1 specimen, 11. v.1924 
(Bryan) ; 1,000 ft., 1 specimen, 21.xi.l925. 

Tutuila :— 1,000-1,200 ft., 1 specimen, xii.1918 (Kellers). 

Previously recorded from Fiji and Samoa and also occurs in Savage Is. 
(Nine), 16.viii.l918, Kellers. 

Apparently absent from Upolu. 

35. Orthaea nigriceps (Dallas), 

RhyparoeJiromus nigriceps Dallas, List Hemipt. Brit. Mus., II, p. 577, 1852. 
Orthaea nigriceps Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. -358, 1908. 
Pamera nigriceps Cheesman, Trans. Ent. Soc. T^ond., 1927, p. 157, 1927. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 10.ix.l922 (Armstrong) ; 1 specimen, xii.1924, 
1 specimen, i.l925 ; Aleipata : 1 specimen, iv.l924 ; Malololelei : 2 specimens, 
5.i.l924 (Armstrong) ; 1 specimen, vii.1925 (Wilder) ; Mulifanua : 2 specimens, 
I6.vii.l925 (Wilder). 

Savaii : — Fagamalo : 2 specimens, xi.l925. 

Tutuila : — Pago Pago : 0-300 ft., 1 specimen, iv.l918 (Kellers). 

Manua Is : — Tau : 1 specimen, 27. ix. 1923, " grass " (Swezey). 

Previously recorded from Philippines (?), Fiji, Tahiti, Raiatea, Hawaii, 
New Zealand and N.S. Wales. 

Judging by material in the British Museum collection, this species is some- 
what variable and is probably composite. The type specimen is from the 
Sandwich Is. (Hawaii) and differs considerably from the Southern Pacific 
specimens collected in Fiji, Samoa, and Tahiti which more nearly approach 
0. andreivsi Dist. occurring on Christmas 1. 



II. 3. 



4 



130 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



36. Orthaea nietneri (Dohrn). 

Plociomerus nietneri Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., XXI, p. 404, 1860. 
Pamera nietneri Stal, Enum. Hemipt. IV, p. 151, 1874. 

Orthaea tiietneri Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 358, 1908. 

Upolu :— Malololelei : 2,000 ft., 1 specimen, I2.iii.l924, 1 specimen, 
14-30. vi.l 924, 1 specimen, 28.vi.1924. 

Tutuila :--7 60-900 ft., 1 specimen, iv.l918 (Kellers); Pago Pago: 1 speci- 
men, 24.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Previously recorded from Cejlon, Burma, Java, Philippines, and Fiji. 
The Queensland species 0. {Pamera) tricolorata Distant is closely allied to 
0. nietneri and is possibly merely a subspecies. 

37. Orthaea ventralis, sp. n. (Text-figs. 18 and 19). 

Colour. — Head black, moderately shining with patches of short delicate 
depressed silvery hairs towards apex and around ocelli and with a few scattered 
long erect hairs ; eyes red with a few short erect hairs ; antennae fulvous yellow, 
apex of first and second segments and apical third of third segment, slightly 
infuscate ; base and apical fourth of fourth segment black, the region between 
pale yellow ; rostrum fulvous yellow, its apex black. Pronotum sparsely 
covered with short depressed hairs and a few long erect hairs ; anterior lobe 
dark ferruginous brown, anterior collar and posterior lobe ferruginous ; humeral 
angles dull yellow crossed by an obscure oblique dark brown mark, the interior 
margm of the yellow spot, dark brown ; posterior margin with some obscure 
dark brown suffusion. Propleura black, the acetabulae and the posterior margin 
ferruginous brown. Scutellum ferruginous brown, basal third and apex dark 
brown ; sparsely covered with short depressed hairs and with a few long and 
erect hairs. Meso- and meta-pleura black, acetabulae and posterior lateral 
angle of metapleuron, ferruginous brown. Hemielytra dull greyish-yellow with 
longitudinal brown markings as shown in figure ; membrane dark brown with 
vems at base, basal disc, and apex, greyish-yellow. Legs yellow, last tarsal 
segment and claws, fuscous. Venter black, a large parallel -sided area on disc 
extending to base of ovipositor, the connexivum, and some obscure more or less 
longitudinal markings in the region of the spiracles, fulvous yellow. 

Structure. — Head about four-fifths as long as wide across eyes (21 : 26) ; 
rostrum extending to middle of mesosternum, the basal segment scarcely 
reaching to posterior margin of eye ; first antenjial segment extending by 



HEMIPTERA— HETEEOPTERA. 131 

nearly half its lengtli beyond apex of head ; relative lengths of antennal segments 
15 : 29 : 23 : 29 ; eyes moderately large and prominent, width of vertex between 
their inner margins exactly one-half the total width of head across eyes (13 : 26) ; 
ocelli three times as far from one another as from the eyes (9:3). Anterior lobe 
of pronotum about two-thirds as long in middle as wide at its posterior margin 




Text-fig. 18.— Dorsal view (legs omitted) of : a, Orthaea ventralis, sp. n. ; 
h, Orthaea pvberida, sp. n. 

(17 : 26), and about three-fourths as wide at its anterior margin as at its posterior 
margin (20 : 26) ; sides convex, widest part a little below the middle ; posterior 
lobe of pronotum very obscurely and sparsely punctate not quite three times 
as wide across humeral angles as long in the middle (41 : 14) ; posterior margin 
broadly emarginate, humeral angles rounded but distinctly projecting beyond 
costal margins of hemielytra. Scutellum about four-fifths as wide at base as 



132 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



long, a distinct row of punctures down each side and a few irregular punctures 
within the outer row towards the apex ; a distinct depression towards base of 
disc. Hemielytra almost parallel sided ; clavus with three distinct rows of 
punctures, the inner and outer rows running along the extreme inner and outer 
margins ; a few irregular punctures between the middle row and the row nearest 
the scutellum ; the hemielytral punctures giving rise to very short depressed 
hairs, otherwise glabrous. Anterior femora armed on posterior side with five 
spines, a moderately large one near the middle of femur, another equally large 
one towards the apex, two small spines between the two large ones and one 



Text-fig. 19. — Orthaea puberula, sp. n. : a, fore femur and tibia, (J. Orthaea ventralis, sp. n. : 
b, fore femur and tibia, $ ; c, lateral view of abdomen, showing shape of ventral pallid spot. 

small spine between apical large spine and apex of femur ; anterior tibiae in 
male with a short posteriorly directed spur placed in the middle of the tibia. 

Total length : (^4-9 mm., $ 5-0 mm. Width across humeral angles : 
(J 1-3 mm., 9 1-4 mm. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 $ specimen (type), xi.l924 : Malololelei : 1 specimen, 
vii.1925 (Wilder). 

Tutuila: — Pago Pago: 4 specimens, l.x.1923, 1 specimen, 20.ix.l923 (Swezey 
and Wilder); Fagasa : 2 specimens, 9.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder); Leone 
Road: 1 specimen, 7.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder); Afono Trail: 1 specimen, 
25. ix. 1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Belongs to the nietneri — nigriceps group but readily distinguished from 
other species by its narrow rather elongate form and by the large yellow sjpot 
on the venter. 




HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



133 



38. Orthaea puberula, sp. n. (Text-figs. 18 and 19). 

Colour.— Read black, shining, with a ratlier scanty, short pale tomentose 
pubescence at apex and at base around ocelli and a few scattered erect hairs ; 
rostrum fulvous yelloAv, its apex black and basal segment infuscate, covered 
with moderately long erect hairs ; antennae fulvous yellow, fourth segment 
more or less infuscate, sparsely covered with moderately long erect hairs. 
Anterior lobe of pronotum dull black covered with a sparse tomentose silvery 
pubescence which becomes much more dense along the middle line and along 
lateral margins ; anterior collar ferruginous ; posterior lobe dull ferruginous 
brown, more or less evenly covered with the silvery pubescence ; humeral 
angles dull yellow. Propleura dull black, posterior margin and posterior lateral 
angles ferruginous. Scutellum dull black sparsely covered with short silvery 
hairs and moderately long erect hairs the lateral margins of the apical half - 
dark ferruginous brown. Meso- and meta-pleura dull black, acetabulae and 
posterior margins and posterior lateral angle of metapleuron, ferruginous. 
Hemielytra fulvous yellow the costal margin rather paler, an obscure dark 
brown stripe down clavus and a pair of longitudinal dark brown stripes oh 
apical half of corium, the outer one widening posteriorly and reaching the 
apical margin of the corium ; hemielytra covered with short erect hairs arising 
from dark brown punctures. Membrane pallid with some obscure pale fuscous 
longitudinal stripes between the veins. Legs fulvous yellow, the coxae, bases 
of anterior femora and claws, ferruginous brown. Venter dark ferruginous 
brown, shading to black in an obscure broad longitudinal lateral stripe down 
each side and in a longitudinal stripe down the ovipositor. 

Structure. — Head about five-sixths as long as broad across eyes (26 : 30) ; 
rostrum extending to middle of mesosternum, the basal segment reaching to 
middle of eye ; first antennal segment extending by about one-third its length 
beyond apex of head ; relative lengths of antennal segments, 14 : 24 : 18 : 26 ; 
vertex relatively broad and distinctly concave ; eyes rather small not prominent, 
width of vertex between their inner margins exactly three-fifths of the total 
width of head across eyes (18 : 30) ; oceHi three times as far from one another 
as from, the eyes (12 : 4). Anterior lobe of pronotum less than two-thirds as 
long in middle as wide at its posterior margin (20 : 34), and about five-sevenths 
as wide at the well-developed anterior collar as at its posterior margin ; sides 
convex, widest part well below the middle ; posterior lobe of pronotum rather 



134 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



more than three times as wide across humeral angles as long in middle (48 : 15) ; 
surface rather obscurely and sparsely jjunctate ; posterior margin broadly 
emarginate above scutellum ; humeral angles rounded projecting only slightly 
beyond the costal margins of hemielytra. Scutellum about five-sevenths as 
wide at base as long ; somewhat irregularly punctate along lateral margins of 
apical half ; disc sparsely and obscurely punctate. Hemielytra much more 
densely and irregularly punctate than in 0. ventralis ; the clavus with three 
distinct rows of punctures, the inner and outer rows running along the extreme 
inner and outer margins ; a fourth short irregular row running between the 
median row and that nearest the scutellum is almost contiguous with the median 
row ; corium with two distinct rows, one along the margin by the claval suture, 
the other along Cui ; the rest of the corium except the costal border and narrow 
strips along the R + M row, and between the cubital and sutural rows, more 
or less regularly punctate ; all punctures giving rise to moderately long semi- 
erect hairs. Anterior femora armed on posterior side with five spines, one 
moderately large one near the middle of femur, another rather longer placed 
towards the apex and slightly curved in that direction, two small ones placed 
between the larger spines and one small one between apical large spine and 
apex of femur ; anterior tibia in male unarmed. 

Total length : (^4-8 mm., $ 5-7 mm. Width across humeral angles : 
^1-4 mm., $ 1-6 mm. 

Upolu : — Malololelei : 2,000 ft., 1 sj-'^cimen, 24. ii. 1924, 2 specimens, (in- 
cluding type), 22.iii.1924, 2 specimens, vi.l924, 1 specimen, 18.iv.l925, 2 specimens, 
21.iv.l925. . 

Savaii : — Fagamalo : 1 specimen, xi.l925. 

Belongs to the nietneri — nigriceps group, and distinguished by the rather 
broad head, small eyes, broad pronotum and comparatively dense semi-erect 
pubescence. Apparently allied to the Cingalese 0. {Pamera) flavipes (Motsch.) 
Distant. 

39. Bedunia msularis Stal. 

Bedunia insularis Stal, Enuin. Heinlpt., IV, p. 146, 1874. 

Upolu : — Malololelei : 7 specimens, 24. ii. 1924 ; 2,000 ft., 1 specimen, 
23. xi. 1924 ; 2 specimens, xii.1925. 

° Savaii :— Salailua : Eain Forest, 2,000-4,000 ft., 1 specimen, 17.V.1924 
(Bryan). 



HEMIPTEEA— HETEROPTERA. 



135 



Tutuila :— 1,100-1,200 ft., 1 specimen, iv.l918 (Kellers); Afono Trail: 
1 specimen, 25.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; Pago Pago : 1 specimen, 2.xii.l924. 

Only known to occm: in Samoa. The genus is based on a Philippine species 
and Kirkaldy has described a third species native to Fiji. 

Bryanella,* gen. n. 

Head and pronotmn strongly deflexed, head slightly exserted, a little 
shorter than wide across eyes (22 : 25) ; eyes prominent but not stylate ; vertex 
three times as wide as diameter of an eye (33 : 11) ; ocelli placed posterior to a 
line drawn between posterior margins of eyes, further from one another than 
from eyes (8:5); base of vertex between the ocelli with a short longitudinal, 
rather deep pit or depression ; lateral margins of juga distinctly carinate 
forming definite supra-antennal ridges ; antenniferous tubercles moderately 
prominent (seen from above), bucculae very short semicircular, not extending 
as far as level of insertion of antennae ; rostrum extending to hind coxae, first 
segment reaching level of posterior margin of eyes ; antennae very long and 
slender about as long as the total length of insect including membrane, fourth 
segment distinctly thickened. Pronotum with the anterior collar very distinct 
somewhat swollen in middle, rather less than one-half as long as the anterior 
lobe (6 : 14) which is indistinctly separated from posterior lobe ; anterior lobe 
two-fifths the length of posterior lobe (14 : 35), its lateral margins convex not 
carinate ; posterior lobe more than twice as wide posteriorly as anterior collar 
(94 : 40) with its lateral margins straight, not carinate except posteriorly just 
above rounded humeral angle where there is a short very distinct ridge abruptly 
terminated posteriorly to form a distinct angle or tooth ; posterior margin 
almost straight. Scutellum longer than broad at base. Hemielytra with 
apical three-quarters of costal margin distinctly refiexed, and rather sinuate. 
Legs slender, femora not incrassate, unarmed ; posterior tibiae with external 
row of distinct bristles. 

Genotype : — Bryanella longicornis, sp. n. 

This genus seems to be more or less intermediate between the Myodochini 
and Rhyparochromini. In the short bucculae, short indistinctly delimited 
anterior pronotal lobe, long antennae and bristled hind femora the genus 
approaches the Rhyparochrojiiini, but in the Avell-developed anterior collar and 



* Dedicated to Mr. E. H. Bryan, junior, in recognition of bis field work in the Samoan Islands. 



136 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



non-carinate lateral margins of pronotum, it resembles the MyodocHni. The 
short tooth-like ridge on lateral margin of posterior lobe above humeral angle 
and the carinate lateral margins of the juga distinguish it at once from all other 
genera of both these groups. It has been temporarily referred to the Rhyparo- 
chrominae, near Ozophora Uhl. 

40. Bryanella longicornls, sp. n. (Text-fig, 20). 

Colour. — Head fuscous, eyes ferruginous, ocelli red ; antennae yellow, 
fourth segment ferruginous brown ; rostrum yellow with its apex black. 
Anterior pronotal collar fulvous yellow, anterior lobe fuscous, posterior lobe 
fulvou,^. yellow with posterior lateral ridges and jjunctures fuscous. Scutellum 
fuscous with a median longitudinal stripe on posterior third, fulvous shading to 
yellow at apex. Pro- meso- and meta-pleura, fuscous, the acetabulae and the 
posterior margins of the metapleura, fulvous. Hemielytra pallid yellow more 
or less suffused or dappled with fulvous brown, the costal margin pallid with a 
dark fulvous broAvn spot on a level Avitli apex of clavus and another at apex of 
corium ; ajDical third of clavus in some specimens also brown. Membrane 
opaque infumate, a longitudinal spot below the aj)ex of corium a spot at apex 
of clavus and the apical area pallid and semi-hyaline. Legs bright yellow ; 
coxae ferruginous ; aj^ical halves of femora slightly fulvous, apices of tarsi and 
claws brown. Venter shining ferruginous brown. 

Structure. — Vertex finely but distinctly punctate, a V-shaped area with its 
base at the inter-ocellar pit and an area on each side between ocellus and eye, 
smooth impunctate ; upper surface of head rather sparsely covered with pale 
depressed hairs and very sparsely with long erect dark hairs ; relative lengths 
of antennal segments, 18 : 44 : 33 : 30 ; last segment fusiform. Anterior lobe 
of pronotum finely punctate around the smooth dull cicatricial areas, with a 
certain amount of white pruinosity ; posterior lobe more coarsely punctate ; 
whole pronotum covered sparsely with long erect dark hairs. Scutellum more 
or less regularly punctate, the median longitudinal fulvous strijie on apical third, 
laevigate ; disc with several long erect dark hairs, sometimes with definite 
patches of white pruinosity. Pro-, meso- and meta-pleura finely and more or 
less regularly punctate ; posterior margin of metapleuron impunctate, separated 
from rest of pleuron by a deep transverse strongly punctate linear impression. 
Hemiel}d3ra sparsely covered with long erect hairs ; clavus with two distinct 
lines of punctures, the area between irregularly punctate ; corium with a dis- 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



137 



tinct row bi punctures down claval suture and a more or less continuous row 
of finer punctures along apical margin. Femora with scattered fine brown 
points (tubercles ?), tibiae with definite longitudinal rows of similar fine brown 
points. Venter covered with moderately long depressed pale hairs. 

Total length : 4 mm., $ 4-3 mm. Breadth across humeral angles : 
^ 1-4 mm., 9 1-7 mm. 




Text-fig. 20. — Bryanella longicornis, gen. et sp. n. : a, dorsal view (legs omitted); 
h, lateral vieAV of head and thorax. 



Upolu : — Malololelei : 1 specimen, 24.ii.1924, 1 specimen, 25.ii.1924 ; 2,000 ft., 
1 specimen (type), 12.iii.l924, 1 specimen, vi.l924. 

Savaii : — Safune : Lowlands to 1,000 ft., 1 specimen, l.v.1924 ; Rain Forest, 
2,000-4,000 ft., 3 specimens, 9. V. 1924 (Bryan) ; Salailua : 1 specimen, 21.V.1924, 
1 specimen, 22. v. 1924 (Bryan). 



138 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



41. Aphanus (Elasmolomus) insularis (Kirk.). 

Elasmolomus insularis Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 360, 1908. 
Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 9.iii.l924 (Armstrong). 

Previously recorded only from Fiji, but allied to the Philippine species 
Ajphanus {Elasmolomus) v-album Stal. 



42. Cligenes swezeyi,* sp. n. (Text-fig. 21). 

Colour. — Head bright ferruginous brown with a very sparse whitish 
pubescence which is longer and more dense apically ; tylus rather paler in 
colour, eyes dark brown, ocelli yellow very bright and prominent ; antennae 

more or less uniformly fuscous brown 
covered with a dense moderately long 
pubescence, the three apical segments 
also with a few longer erect hairs ; 
rostrum yellow. Pronotum semi-shining, 
bright coppery red-brown with a fuscous 
suffusion on each side of the base of pos- 
terior lobe above base of corium ; posterior 
lobe regularly covered with very short 
silvery hairs arising from punctures ; 
anterior lobe with a fine regular pubes- 
cence rather denser than that on the 
posterior lobe ; propleuron bright velvety 
red-brown. Scutellum uniformly ferru- 
ginous brown and sparsely covered with 
short hairs arising from the punctures ; 
meso- and meta-pleura shining ferruginous 
Tkxt-fig. 2l.-Cligenes swezeyi B^.n.-.doxsRl^^ ^j^^ evaporative area dark grey 
view (legs omitted). . i • • i • i 

brown. Hemielytra whitish-yellow with 

a broad oblique stripe extending inwards and posteriorly from the middle of 
costal margin and a large brown spot at apical angle of corium which extends 
along apical margin to another larger brown spot occupying the whole of the 
inner angle of the corium ; the costal oblique stripe tends to fuse with the 




* This species is dedicated to Mr. 0. H. Swezey, in recognition of his field work in Samoa. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEEOPTERA. 



139 



brown area of the inner angle ; clavus and cerium covered with very short 
pale hairs which arise from the punctm"es ; membrane hyaline, uniformJy 
infumate. Legs yellow, bases of femora more or less infuscate. A^enter shining 
ferruginous brown covered with a regular fine pubescence, the lateral tricho- 
bothria giving rise to four very long upwardly curved pale hairs on each side 
and visible from above. 

Structure. — Head about two-thirds as long as wide across eyes (23 : 32) ; 
vertex more than three times as wide as the width of an eye (20 : 6), except at 
base, finely rugosely wrinkled ; first segment of antenna extending about half 
its length beyond the apex of head ; relative lengths of segments 20 : 25 : 20 : 24 ; 
rostrum extending to intermediate coxae, the first segment reaching the level 
of posterior margin of eye. Pronotum about twice as wide across humeral 
angles as long in the middle (62 : 32) and more than three-fourths as wide 
anteriorly as long in the middle (26 : 32) ; anterior margin broadly emarginate, 
lateral margins moderately sinuate, posterior margin strongly emarginate 
above base of scutellum ; anterior lobe impunctate except along middle of 
anterior margin, posterior lobe regularly but finely punctate. Scutellum as 
long as wide at base and nearly three times as long as claval commissure (33 : 12) ; 
sparsely punctate. Clavus with three distinct rows of punctures ; corium with 
a row along claval suture, another along Cui and the whole of the area between 
R + M and the costal margin, regularly punctate ; area between R + M and Cui 
semi-hyaline ; apical margin sinuate towards inner angle. Legs unarmed. 

Total length, $ 2-3 mm. Breadth across humeral angles, $ 1 mm. 

Savaii :--Safune : Rain Forest 2,000-4,000 ft., 1 ? (type), 9.V.1924 (Bryan) ; 
Salailua : 1 specimen, 21.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Tutuila : — Pago Pago : 1 specimen, 24.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Readily distinguished from all other species by uniformly red-brown pro- 
notum and scutellum. 

Cligenes swezeyl major, subsp. n. 

Colour. — Similar to C. sivezeyi but much more sombre the browns less reddish 
and the hemielytral markings much less contrasted and more obscure, the brown 
oblique costal stripe practically obsolete ; rostrum ferruginous, legs brownish- 
yellow. 

Structure. — Larger, broader and more robust than C. sivezeyi with the head 
and pronotum less deflexed. Head about four-fifths as long as broad across 



140 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



eyes (27 : 35), vertex about three times as wide as width of an eye (22 : 7) ; disc 
of vertex distinctly but finely sparsely punctate ; first segment of antenna 
extending rather more than half its length beyond apex of head ; relative lengths 
of segments, 21 : 28 : 20 : 24 ; rostrum with first segment extending to middle 
of eye. Pronotum rather less than twice as wide across humeral angles as long 
in middle (71 : 37), and about three-fourths as wide anteriorly as long in the 
middle (28 : 37) ; puncturation stronger than in C. swezeyi. Scutellum about 
three times as long as claval commissure (38 : 13). 

Total length, 5 2-7 mm. Breadth across humeral angles, $ 1-1 mm. 

Upolu :— Malololelei : 1 $ (type), 18.iv.l925. 

Family Pyerhocoridae. 

43. Dysdercus insularis Stal. 

Dysdercus insularis Stal, Enum. Hemipt., I, p. 120, 1870. 

Dysdercus insularis Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, J^XXIll, p. 354, 1908. 

Upolu: — Apia: 1 specimen, ll.iv.l922, 11 specimens and 2 larvae, 24. xii.1922 
(Armstrong) ; 1 specimen, iii.1924, 1 specimen, x.1924, and 1 specimen, i.l925 ; 
Siumu : 4 specimens, 24. xi. 1923 (Armstrong) ; Aleipata : 2 specimens, iv.l924 ; 
Lalomanu : 5 specimens, xi.l924. 

Manono : — 9 specimens, and 1 larva, 10. vi. 1924. 

Savaii : — Lealatele : 2 specimens, xi.l925. 

Tutuila : — Amauli : 13 specimens, 5.ix.l923 (Bryan) ; 5 specimens, 5.ix.l923 
(Swezey and Wilder) ; Leone Road : 1 specimen, 18.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder). 
Manua Is. : — Tau : 1 specimen, 22.iii.1926 (Judd). 

Previously recorded only from Fiji, where it is exceedingly common on 
land recently under cotton (Knowles), but allied to the Austro-Oriental D. sidae 
Montr, and the Malayan D. ijoecilus H. S. 

44. Dysdercus impictiventns Stal. 

Dysdercus impictivenfris Stal, Enum. Hemipt., I, p. 120, 1870. 

Dysdercus albescens Whlker, Cat. Heteropl. Brit. Mus., V, p. 190, 1872. 

Dy.^dcrois impictivenlris Kirkaldy, Froc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 354, 1908. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 1913 (Doane) ; 1 larva, 24. xii.1922 (Armstrong) ; 
1 specimen, 13. ix. 1923 (Bryan) ; 4 specimens, i.l924, 1 specimen, 27.ii.1924, 
1 specimen, 1. iii.1924 (Armstrong) ; 2 specimens, 27.v. 1924 (Bryan) ; 2 specimens, 



HEMIPTERA— HETEEOPTERA . 



141 



18.iv.l924, 3 specimens, x.192'1-, 2 specimens and 2 larvae, 2.xi.l924 (Armstrong) ; 
Vailima : 3 specimens, vi.l924 (Bryan). 

Savaii : — Safune : 1 specimen, 15. v. 1924 (Bryan). 

Tutuila:— 1,100-1,200 ft., 1 specimen, iv.l918, 2 specimens, xii. 191 8 (Kellers); 
Pago Pago : 0-300 ft., 4 specimens, iv. 1918 (Kellers) ; 13 specimens and 1 larva, 
30.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Previously recorded only from Fiji, but allied to the Austro- Oriental species 
D. argillaceus Bergr. 

Family Tingitidae. 
Idiocysta, gen. n. 

Head above unarmed ; bucculae scarcely extending anteriorly, suddenly 
convergent and contiguous so that rostral furrow is closed apically ; antennae 
moderately long, two basal segments slightly incrassate, short, the first segment 
distinctly longer than second ; third segment longest, slender, linear ; fourth 
fusiform becoming gradually slender towards base ; rostrum extending to 
middle of mesosternum, not reaching middle coxae. Pronotum tricarinate but 
only the median carina visible ; anterior collar extending laterally to bucculae, 
only moderately tectiformly elevated dorsally, not globosely dilated, its anterior 
margin lightly convexly sinuate ; paranota originating just beyond lateral 
carinae, strongly dilated and reflexed over disc of pronotum to form two elongate 
coarsely reticulate, semi-globose hoods which almost meet over median carina 
completely hiding whole of the pronotum except median carina and apex of 
pronotum ; disc between carinae and below globose paranota covered with 
long tomentose pale hairs. Propleuron broad evenly rounded. Hemielytra 
complete, extending well beyond apex of abdomen ; in repose their costal margins 
sub-parallel feebly sinuate in middle ; slightly wider across bases than across 
membranes, but very little wider than pronotum at base ; discoidal area flat, 
scarcely reaching middle of hemielytron ; sub-costal area very narrow, more or 
less vertical ; costal area distinctly widened in middle, base reflexed, with a 
single row of cells ; broad medial region with two rows of cells. Metasternal 
orifice with a distinct auriculate lobe. Legs moderately short and slender. 

Genotype : — Idiocysta hackeri, sp. n. 

Apparently allied to Physatocheila Fieber but the head unarmed, the sub- 
costal area of hemielytra narrow and vertical, the costal area widened in the 



142 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



middle and tlie paraiiota strongly giobosely develojjed. Differs from MonantTiia 
in presence of lobe to metasternal orifice. 

45. Idiocysta hackerl,* sp. nov. (Text-fig. 22). 

Colour. — Head and eyes black, vertex covered with white pruinosity ; 
bucculae fuscous ; antennae yellow, the fourth segment, except base, black. 




Text-i'ig. 22. — Idiocysta hacJceri, gen. et. sp. n. : a, dorsal view (antennae and legs omitted) ; 

b, lateral view of head and pronotura. 

Anterior collar of pronotum pale yellow, the paranota grey with dark fuscous 
reticulation ; extreme apex of pronotum and of median carina pale yellow. 
Propleura black shading to fuscous along posterior margin. Meso- and meta- 
pleura and sterna black, the carinae, the lobe of odoriferous orifice, and posterior 
lateral angle of metapleuron, sordid fulvous. Hemielytra black, the costal 

* Dedicated to Mr. H. Hacker, of the Queensland Museum, in recognition of his excellent Fork 
on the Australian Tingitidae. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



143 



vein at base and in middle, a stripe on vein bounding inner margin of discoidal 
area, another along origin of vein running from apex of discoidal area, and the 
reticulation of the broad median region of costal area, all sordid yellow ; larger 
cells of membrane towards apex greyish fuscous. Legs yellow, apices of tibiae 
and tarsi infuscate. Venter black. 

Structure. — Head twice as wide as long (24 : 12) ; vertex twice as wide 
as width of an eye (12 : 6) ; relative lengths of antennal segments, 12 : 7 : 57 : 32. 
Pronotum about five-eighths as wide across widest part as long from anterior 
margin of collar to posterior apex (54 : 83) ; paranota about twice as long as 
greatest breadth 63 : 52 ; coarsely reticulate about 24 cells visible from above 
on each lobe, the veins thick ; the inner marginal vein with a few moderately 
long hairs ; length of pronotum visible posteriorly, equal in length to anterior 
collar in middle ; median carina strongly elevated. Hemielytra widest at level 
of apex of pronotum, about half the total length (64:125); reticulation of 
membrane cells equal in size to those of middle of costal area ; reticulation of 
discoidal area rather less coarse and of subcostal area moderately fine ; veins 
of discoidal area with a few moderately long erect hairs. Bucculae finely 
reticulate ; propleura obsoletely punctate posteriorly. 

Total length, 2-8 mm. Greatest breadth of pronotum, 0-9 mm. 

Upolu: — Tuaefu : 1 specimen, 16.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; Malololelei : 
2,000 ft., 1 specimen (type), vi.l924. 

Family Reduviidae 

Subfamily Emesinae. 

46. Gardena pacifica Kirk. 
Gardena pacifica Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 371, 1908. 

Upolu : — Vailima : 1 winged $, 10.iv.l925. 

This species has hitherto been recorded only from Fiji. 

47. Gardena geniculata, sp. n. (Text-fig. 23). 
Apterous. — $. Dark chestnut-brown, the pro- meso- and meta-nota laterally 
and the abdomen (except some obscure fulvous markings) blackish-brown. 
Sides of posterior lobe of head dark brown, with a pale stripe behind eye ; eyes 
black. Antennae dark brown, the first segment except apical eighth, pale 
brown ; extreme apices of first, second, and third segments sordid white. Coxae 



144 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



and trochanters dark brown ; anterior femora, tibiae and tarsi, cliestnut brown 
with the apical eighth of femur and extreme base of tibia sordjd white ; base 




Text-fig. 23. — Gardena geniculata, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head and pronotum ; 
h, lateral view of same ; c, anterior leg. 

and apex of brown part of femur and tibia, darker ; spines on femora black with 
brown base. Intermediate and posterior femora pale brown the apices white 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



145 



bounded basally with a broad blackish-brown annulation ; intermediate and 
posterior tibiae pale brown gradually becoming darker towards the extreme 
bases which are white. 

Structure. — Head with anterior lobe slightly longer than posterior lobe 
(25 : 23), the latter slightly shorter than width of head across eyes (23 : 24) ; 
antennae very long and slender, first and second segments equal in length, 
third very short, fourth rather more than three times as long as third ; relative 
lengths of segments 280 : 280 : 15 : 50. Pronotum rather less than twice as 
long as head (82 : 48), the basal lobe (fitting over apex of mesonotum) very short. 
Visible part of mesonotum slightly shorter than head (45 : 48), rather obscurely 
tri-sulcate ; metanotum rather shorter than mesonotum (40 : 45), obscurely 
tricarinate. Relative lengths of anterior coxae, femora, tibiae and tarsi, 
130 : 198 : 107 : 17 ; femur armed with six long spines, about ten shorter spines 
and numerous small spines ; distance from base of femm- to first long spine 
rather longer than from apex of femur to last long spine (60 : 50). Relative 
lengths of intermediate femur and tibia, 362 : 507, and of posterior femur and 
tibia 497 : 710. Abdomen more than one-half longer than head and thorax 
together (365 : 215), slightly and gradually widened towards apex. 

Total length, 20 mm. 

Upolu :— Malololelei : 1 $ (type), 2,000 ft., 25.ii.1924. 

Closely allied to Gardena pacijica Kirk., but differing in the well-marked 
white apices of the femora, and in the armature of the anterior femora, which 
bear six instead of five long spines. 

48. Luteva * insolida B. White (Text-fig. 24). 

Luteva insolida Buchanan White, Ann. Mag. Nat., Hist., (4), XX, p. 113, 1877. 
Ploiaria collenetti Cheesman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), XIX, p. 95, 1927. 

Miss Cheesman's species is apparently synonymous with the Hawaiian 
Luteva insolida B. White, and, as her description was based on very poorly 
preserved material from the Marquesas, while that of B. White is somewhat 
inadequate, it has been thought advisable to redescribe the species from the 
Samoan specimen. 
Redescription : — 

Colour. — ^. Head including rostrum pale brown, region between eye and 
inserti^ •! of antennae, darker ; antennae uniformly deep castaneous brown ; 



* Ploiaria McAtee and Malloch (tiec Scopoli ?), Phil. Journ. Sci., XXX, 1, p. 139, 1926. 
II. 3. 5 



146 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



eyes black. Pro- and meso-nota and pleura castaneous brown with a rather 
obscure broad pallid longitudinal median stripe extending from anterior margin 
of pronotum to apex of scutellum which is brown ; posterior margin of pronotum 
pale brown ; meta-notum and pleuron brown, the posterior apex of meta-notum 
darker ; j^ro- meso- and meta-sterna pallid. Hemielytra greyish-white ; veins 
fuscous except cubital (anal ?) vein and apical half of costal and subcostal veins 
which are orange-yellow and the bifurcation of R + M at base of discal cell and 
basal half of Sc which are greyish-white ; basal half of costal cell, outer half 
of basal cell, claval margin, basal angle of discal cell, a long stripe along apical 
half of Sc, a large oval spot in middle of discal cell, another more elongate in 
middle of inner apical cell and smaller spots in the two outer apical cells, all 
fuscous brown ; margins of veins also infuscate especially cross vein between 
apex of Sc and R + M.* Wings whitish hyaline. Anterior legs pallid brown^ 




Text-pig. 24. — Luteva insolida B. White, hemielytron. 

the outer surface of coxae towards apex and the dorsal surface of femora, 
especially the apex, and tibiae and tarsi castaneous brown ; bristles on under- 
side of femora black. Intermediate and posterior legs castaneous brown the 
tibiae gradually becoming paler towards tarsi which are pale ; no pallid or 
darker annulations present, coxae pale brown. Abdomen dark brown with the 
pygophor (hypopygium) and some obscure markings paler. 

Structure. — Anterior lobe of head about one and a half times longer than 
posterior lobe (15 : 9) ; vertex between eyes slightly wider than width of eye 
(8:6); transverse impression with its extremities in middle of eye, slightly 
posteriorly curved ; antennae without long hairs, relative lengths of antennal 
segments, 158 : 124 : 32 : 16. Pronotum about two-thirds the total lengths of 
head (17 : 23), with an obscure median sulcation, the basal lobe very short. 
Mesonotum to apex of scutellum as long as from transverse impression of head 
to posterior margin of pronotum (28) ; width across humeral angles equal to 
width of head including eyes ; distinctly trisulcate, the lateral sulcations with a 
thin white membranous carina running along them. Metanotum about one- 



Homology of veins possibly not correct. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



147 



third the length of mesonotum (9 : 28). Hemielytra extending to apex of 
abdomen ; discal cell less than twice as long as vein emitted from its apex. 
Relative lengths of anterior coxae, femora tibiae and tarsi, 37 : 58 : 32 : 18 ; 
trochanter with a single stout bristle towards apex ; spines of femora longest 
towards base, becoming gradually shorter towards apex. Relative lengths of 
intermediate femora, tibiae and tarsi, 150 : 218 : 7. Relative lengths of posterior 
femora, tibiae and tarsi, 213 : 324 : 7. Posterior surface of hypopygium con- 
tinued in a long central spine which extends slightly beyond the apices of 
parameres. 

Total length, 7-5 mm. 

Upolu :— Vailima : 1 8.vi.l924. 

Also recorded from Hawaii and the Marquesas (Fatuhiva). Closely allied 
to the Philippine Ploiaria uniformis McAtee and Malloch, but apparently dis- 
tinguished by rather larger size, the pale median longitudinal stripe down pro- 
and meso-nota, and the shorter discal cell. 

As pointed out by Miss L. E. Cheesman, it is probable that, in spite of the 
presence of trochantal spines, this species is more closely related to Luteva 
Dohrn than to Ploiaria Scop. McAtee and Malloch {Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 67, 
I, p. 49, 1925) have regarded Luteva as s5rnonymous with Ploiaria, basing their 
argument on the intergradation, which they say occurs in the diagnostic characters 
so far considered. This may be so, but we cannot accept their further argument 
that one should refrain from recognising what they call an excessive number of 
genera, because it makes the construction and use of a generic key difficult. 
Genera should be based on phylogeny, not on convenience, and perfectly distinct 
genera, even if they " approach the one species standard," should not be synony- 
mized to facilitate the construction of a key. 

49, Luteva subaequalis (McA. and Mall.). 

Ploiaria subaequalis McAtee and Malloch, Phil. Journ. Sci., XXX, 1, p. 142, 1926. 

There is in Buxton's collection a single damaged specimen, which agrees very 
closely with McAtee's and Malloch's description of this species. The genitalia 
and part of the abdomen are missing, but the reticulate infuscation of the 
hemielytra is very distinctive. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, 29.V.1925. 

Recorded only from the Philippines. 



148 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



50. Empicoris rubromaculatus (Blackb.). 

Ploiariodes ruhromaculata Blackburn, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, (2), III, p. 349, 1889. 
Ploiariodes euryale Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 372, 1908. 
Ploiariodes californica Banks, Psyche, XVI, p. 46, 1909. 

Ploiariola froggatti Horvath, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., XII, pp. 643, fig. 5, 1914. 

Empicoris rubromaculatus McAtee and Malloch, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., LXVII, I, p. 16, 1925. 

Savaii :— 1 specimen, 1,000 ft., 21. xi. 1925. 

Recorded from California, Missom'i, Florida, Virginia, Porto Rico, Brazil 
(Madeira ?), N.S. Wales, New Zealand, Fiji and Hawaii. 

The variety recorded by McAtee and Malloch from Madeira is probably 
identical with Ploiariola scotti Distant. (Seychelles). 

51. Empicoris, sp. 

This species is apparently closely allied to the Fijian E. calamine Kirk., 
but differs in the more or less regular fuscous annulation of the first antennal 
segment and hind femora. It has been thought best not to base a new species 
on a fragmentary specimen. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 mutilated specimen, x.1925. 

52. Empicoris (Dictynna, nov.) nitidicollis, sp. n. (Text-fig. 25). 
Colour. — Head intensely shining, dark brown, the posterior lobe rather 
paler but very dark down the middle line ; underside, between the eyes, with a 
dense pad of long erect hairs ; eyes black, apices of antenniferous tubercles 
pale ; rostrum shining brown, the apices of first and second segments, base 
of third and commissure pallid. Antenna dark blackish-brown, becoming 
paler towards the extremity ; the first segment with some obscure fulvous 
brown annulations and its apex white, sparsely clothed with long erect hairs ; 
second and third segments without annulations, covered with shorter more or 
less depressed hairs. Pronotum intensely shining, dark brown, entirely 
glabrous except for a tuft of interlocking silvery hairs in the medial impression 
of the anterior lobe. Meso- and meta- nota dull dark brown, the spines pale 
brown ; mesonotum covered with silvery hairs ; pro- meso- and meta-sterna 
and pleura intensely shining, black, the pro- and meso-acetabulae pallid ; 
prosternum with a pad of pale hairs on each side of the stridulatory groove, the 
mesosternum glabrous ; the metasternum regularly covered with long fine 
erect hairs. Hemielytra almost completely covered with large fuscous areas, 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



149 



the narrow intervening spaces whitisli hyaline ; stigma uniformly brown, veins 
fuscous with certain regions pallid (see figure). Wings hyaline, veins and 
membrane along them, especially at apex of wing, infuscate. Anterior leg 
dark brown, the base and upper surface of coxae, the trochanter, the basal 




Text-fig. 25. — Empicoris (Dictynna) nitidicollis, subgen. et. sp. n. : a, lateral view of head and 
thorax ; b, hemielytron ; c, anterior leg ; d, ventral view of base of abdomen, showing 
straight posterior margin of first ventrite. 



third of underside, two medial annulations and the extreme apex of femur, 
extreme base, a sub-basal and a sub-apical annulation of tibia, and base of 
tarsus, yellowish- white ; intermediate leg yellowish- white, a spot towards apex 
of coxa, seven more or less regular annulations and the apex (broadly) of femur 
deep brown, eight annulations and the apical third of tibia brown ; hind leg 



150 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



similar to intermediate leg but with the coxa brown except at apex, the femur 
with eight or nine annulations and the apex deep brown ; tibia with about ten 
annulations and the apical fourth brown. Abdomen dull dark brown becoming 
paler on the second and third ventrites, the first ventrite shining black. 

Structure. — Head about as long as wide across eyes (34 : 35) with the 
anterior and posterior lobes of equal length ; vertex about as wide between eyes 
as width of eye (12 : 11) ; transverse impression placed on a level with middle 
of eye, slightly posteriorly curved ; relative leng^ths of antennal segments 
185 : 216 : 55 (fourth segment mutilated in type) ; relative lengths of rostral 
segments 24 : 15 : 15. Pronotum intensely smooth and shining longer than 
broad across humeral angles (46 : 40) the posterior lobe nearly three times as 
long as the anterior lobe ; medial impression of anterior lobe deep, covered by 
interlocking hairs from each side of impression ; disc of posterior lobe strongly 
convex, without sulcations, or ridges ; lateral carinae entirely absent. Meso- 
and meta-nota with short spines (mesonotal spine broken in type). Hemi elytra 
slightly longer than abdomen ; discal cell very long, more than tw-ice as long as 
apical vein, without a small basal cell, strongly indented apically ; stigma long 
and broad. 

Relative lengths of anterior coxa femur, tibia and tarsus, 40 : 93 : 70 : 15 ; 
femur with two rows of very short spines and bristles, gradually increasing in 
length towards base, less than one-fourth the width of femur in middle but 
each row ending at base in a longer spine about one-half width of femur ; tarsus 
two segmented. Relative lengths of femur, tibia and tarsus of intermediate leg, 
190 : 265 : 12, and of posterior leg, 270 : 410 : 12. Basal tergite of abdomen 
with an erect spine, basal sternite with its posterior margin broadly concave 
not deeply angularly emarginate. 

Total length, 5 mm. 

Upolu :— Malololelei : 1 $ (type), 2,000 ft., 25.ii.1924. 

Dictynna, subgen. n. 

Differs from Empicoris in the absence of a deep angular emargination of 
the posterior margin of the basal abdominal sternite and in the smooth intensely 
shining pronotum with strongly convex posterior lobe entirely without lateral 
carinae. The first character is, according to McAtee and Malloch, of generic 
importance. 

Genotype : — Empicoris nitidicollis, sp. n. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



151 



Subfamily Saicinae. 

53. Polytoxus simllis, sp. ii. (Text-fig. 26). 

Polytoxus, sp., Kirkaldy ?, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 368, 1908. 

Colour. — Rather variable. Head above pale fulvous suiJused with pale 
red, especially towards apex, below more or less infuscate ; anterior lobe between 
eyes also slightly infuscate in some specimens ; eyes black ; first segment of 
antennae fulvous tinted with red at base, remaining segments fuscous with pale 




Text-fiCt. 26. — Polytoxus similis, sp. n. : a, lateral view of head and pronotum ; b, hemielytron ; 

c, terminal view of abdomen. 



pubescence ; rostrum fulvous yellow. Pronotum fulvous yellow the anterior 
lobe darker and lightly suffused with dull red-brown, and with the median line 
slightly infuscate ; posterior lobe with a broad median pale fuscous stripe ; 
humeral spines yellow with apices infuscate ; propleura sordid yellow, with a 
short but broad fuscous stripe laterad of, but touching acetabulae. Meso- 
and meta-nota fuscous the spines fulvous with apices fuscous ; meta- and 



152 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



meso-pleura fuscous. Hemielytra pale yellow ; with a percurrent longitudinal 
stripe, extending from base of clavus to apex of membrane, fuscous becoming 
pale towards apex of membrane ; stigma sometimes with a pale pink suffusion 
the vein bounding it internally also tinged with pink. Legs fulvous yellow, 
apices of femora and bases of tibiae bright red ; apices of tibiae especially anterior 
tibiae, fulvous, tarsi infuscate. Abdomen sordid yellow with a broad somewhat 
suffused fuscous stripe down each side. 

Structure. — $. Head about one and a half times longer than wide across 
eyes (35 : 23) ; the anterior lobe, excluding region anterior to insertion of 
antennae, equal in length to posterior lobe (13) ; posterior lobe slightly wider 
than anterior lobe between eyes (19 : 17) ; transverse impression between lobes 
placed slightly behind level of posterior margins of eyes, not strongly concave ; 
relative lengths of antennal segments 140 : 58 : 85 : 45. Posterior lobe of 
pronotum two-thirds the length of anterior lobe (20 : 30) ; width across humeral 
angles about four-fifths the total length of pronotum (38 : 50) ; pronotal spines 
about as long as posterior lobe in the middle (20) inclined laterally and slightly 
anteriorly. Mesonotal spine about as long as pronotal spines and inclined 
slightly posteriorly, metanotal spine short about one-fourth length of mesonotal 
spine. Hemielytra extending to apex of abdomen, basal membranal cell narrow, 
more or less parallel sided, apical membranal cell large, its apical marginal vein 
strongly bent to form a rectangular indentation {see fig. 266). Relative lengths 
of femur tibia and tarsus, anterior leg, 96 : 110 : 29 ; intermediate leg, 
120 : 132 : 24 ; posterior leg, 200 : 245 : 25. Posterior lateral angles of last 
segment of connexivum ($) obtuse not produced into an acute tooth or spine. 
Male genitalia figured (26c). 

Total length : $ 10-5 mm., ^ 10-3 nmi. 

Upolu : — Tuaefu : Sliding Rock, 1 larva, 16.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 
Apia: 1 $ (type), 13.iv.l924 (Armstrong); Vailima : 1 specimen. I.i.l925, 
1 specimen, 2.i,1925. 

Tutuila : — Pago Pago : 1 specimen, 30.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 
Amauli : 1 specimen, 5.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) : Afono Trail : 5 specimens 
(1 broken), 25.ix.1923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Closely allied to the New Caledonian Polytoxus acanthifera Montr, and Sign. 
(=P. acanthophorus Stal), which I know only from description, and possibly 
only a subspecies. Differs in the smaller size, less distinctive coloration, and 
in first two antennal segments not being yellow. 



HEMIFTERA— HETEROPTERA, 



153 



Subfamily Stenopodinae. 
54. Sastrapada hopkinsi,* sp. n. (Text-fig. 27). 

Colour. — and $. Head dull greyish-yellow with a broad composite brown 
Tjand down each side of both lobes, and a brown spot on outer side of antenni- 




Text-fig. 27. — Sastrapada hopkinsi, sj). n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellum. ; 
b, lateral view of head and thorax ; c, anterior leg ; d, lateral view of apex of ^ abdomen ; 
e, dorsal view of same ; /, hemielytron. 

ferous tubercle ; eyes yellow, black in $ ; antennae with first segment dull 
yellow, a small brown spot at its base on outer side, and its apex brown ; remain- 



* This species is dedicated to Mr. G. H. E. Hopkins, the junior collector. 

5* 



154 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



ing segments infuscate ; rostrum yellow with a brown stripe down each side of 
first segment and the apical segment brown. Pronotum and scutellum dull 
yellow ; pro- meso- and meta-pleura more or less infuscate the pale pubescence 
restricted to longitudinal stripes giving a striated brown and yellow appearance. 
Metasternum with a median dark brown stripe. Hemielytra more or less 
greyish-yellow, the costal margin rather darker, the membrane with a suspicion 
of mottling ; a brown spot over vein at base of internal membranal cell. Inner 
surface and two broad transverse stripes on outer surface of anterior coxae, 
brown ; inner surface of anterior femur except for some longitudinal yellow 
striation, a narrow percurrent line along spines, another line broken into four 
pieces, and some mottling between the lines, brown ; short spines brown, large 
spines pale yellow with brown tips. Inner surface of apex of middle femur 
brown and of hind femur slightly infuscate, underside of base and the apex of 
anterior and intermediate tibiae brOwn ; hind tibiae pale yellow ; all tarsi 
brown. Abdomen brownish-yellow, spiracles brown, disc of venter with two 
percurrent parallel brown lines thickened at base of each segment and fusing on 
ultimate segment, sometimes almost obsolete. 

Structure. — ^. Head slightly shorter than pronotum (75 : 85) anterior 
longer than posterior lobe (45 : 25) ; anterior lobe with two short forward spines 
between antennae but unarmed down sides either by spines or bristles ; posterior 
lobe with a row of six bristle-bearing tubercles down each side and with two 
similar tubercles and several smaller ones along posterior margin ; first rostral 
segment extending to middle of eyes ; first antennal segment equal in length 
to head ; relative length of segments, 75 : 105 : 24 (last segment mutilated in 
type). Pronotum less than twice as long as wide at base (85 : 50) ; humeral 
angles moderately elevated and acute but not spined ; anterior propleural spine 
moderately short less than the diameter of an eye. Hemielytra extending to 
about three-fourths the length of abdomen (to fifth visible spiracle). Anterior 
<30xae not extending to base of prosternum, armed with several short spines ; 
the femur with four large spines in anterior percurrent row and two in shorter 
posterior row of short spines ; femur longer than tibia, about as long as from 
anterior margin of eyes to posterior margin of pronotum. Relative lengths of 
anterior coxa, femur, tibia and tarsus, 25 : 125 : 110 : 27 ; intermediate leg, 
140 : 150 : 24 ; posterior leg, 246 : 290 : 27. Last abdominal tergite in male with 
posterior margin broadly concave, the posterior lateral angles only moderately 
acute and not extending beyond apex of pygophor. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



155 



Total length : 16-3 mm., $ 19 mm. 

Upolu :— Apia : 1 30.V.1924, 1 (type), i.l925, 2 larvae, iv.l925, 1 $, 
28. iv. 1925. 

Closely allied to the Philippine S. lurida Stal, but differs in the absence of a 
median fuscous annulation to anterior tibiae, and in having the first segment 
of antennae equal in length to the head. Tryon's description of S. novaeguinensis 
9 (Fergusson Is.), except for the smaller size, agrees with the Samoan specimens 
as does Montrouzier's meagre description of the New Caledonian S. armata, but 
as both these descriptions could apply to several species it has been thought 
advisable, without having seen the types, to describe the Samoan species as new 
rather than risk an erroneous determination. 

55. Oncocephalus pacificus Kirk. 

Oncocephalus pacificus Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 368, 1908. 
Samoa : — 2 specimens, iii.-viii.1921 (O'Connor). 

Upolu: — Apia: 1 specimen, 30.iii.l922 and 1 specimen, 5.V.I924 (Arm- 
strong) ; 1 specimen, x.1924 and 1 specimen, x.1925. 

These specimens agree very well with Kirkaldy \s jDoor description of 0. 
pacificus and with Fijian examples. In some specimens the fuscous mottling 
on the hind femora is absent and only the apical third is fuscous. This species 
is more closely related to the Philippine 0. assimilis Renter and the N. Australian 
0. confusus Renter than to the Mascarene 0. angulatus Rent, to which species it 
was compared by Kirkaldy. 

Recorded only from Fiji. 

Subfamily Acanthaspinae. 
56. Peregrlnator biannulipes (Montr, et Sign.). 

Opiscoetus biannulipes Montrouzier et Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4), I, p. 69, 1861. 
Microcleptes biannulipes Stal, Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Handl., XII, 1, p. 79, 1874. 
Reduvius laniger Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), XVII, p. 411, 1876. 
Alloeocranuni biannulipes Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 369, 1908. 
Peregrinator biannulipes China, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), XV, p. 164, 1925. 

Upolu : — Apia : 1 specimen, x.1925. 

Recorded from Central America, Cuba, Reunion, Rodriguez, Philippines, 
New Caledonia and Fiji ; apparently widely distributed. 



156 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



Family Nabidae. 

57. Arbela * costalis Stal. 

Arbela cosl.alis Stal, Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Handl., XI, 2, p. Ill, 1873. 

Upolii : — Apia : 1 specimen, 28.X.1923 (Armstrong) ; 2 specimens, 12.ix.l923, 
1 larva, 13. ix. 1923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 4 specimens, ii. 1924, 1 specimen, 2. iii. 1924, 

1 specimen, v. 1924, 2 specimens, vi.l924, 2 specimens, 8.ix.l924, 2 specimens, 
iv.l92o ; Tuaefu : Sliding Rock, 5 specimens, 16.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder); 
Vaea : 1,100 ft., 4 specimens, 25. iv. 1924 (Bryan) ; Vailima : 3 specimens, 
25.X.1924 ; Lalomanu : 3 specimens, xi.l924 ; Malololelei : 2,000 ft., 2 speci- 
mens, 12. iii. 1924, 1 specimen, iv.l924. 

Savaii : — Salailua : 2 specimens and 1 larva, 21.V.1924 ; Lowlands to 

I, 000 ft., 3 specimens, 16.V.1924 (Bryan) ; Lower Forest, 1,000-2,000 ft., 1 
specimen, 17.V.1924 (Bryan) ; Rain Forest, 2,000-4,000 ft., 1 larva, 17.V.1924 
(Bryan); Safune : 5 specimens, 4.V.1924 (Bryan); Lowlands to 1,000 ft., 2 
specimens, 30.iv.l924 (Bryan) ; Lower Forest, 1,000-2,000 ft., 2 specimens, 

II. V.1924 (Bryan) ; Tuasivi : 5 specimens, 9.ii.l924. 

Tutuila :— 760-900 ft., 4 specimens, iv.l918 (Kellers); 1,100-1,200 ft., 

2 specimens, iv.l918 (Kellers) ; Pago Pago : 0-300 ft., 4 specimens, iv.l918 
(Kellers) ; 1 specimen, 10.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder), 3 specimens, 12.iv.l924 
(Bryan), 1 specimen, 14.xii.l925 ; Fagasa : 4 specimens, 9.ix.l923 (Swezey and 
Wilder) ; Leone Road : 7 specimens, 7.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; Amauli : 
6 specimens, 5.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Manua Is. : — Tau : 6 specimens, 17.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder), 1 specimen, 
27.ix.I923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Recorded only from Fiji. The sexual dimorphism of the hind tibiae 
exhibited in the Philippine A. nitidula Stal is absent in this species, the hind 
tibiae in the male being without a basal thickening. 

Arbela costalis Stal flavicollis, var. n. 

There are three specimens of Arbela costalis in which the posterior lobe of 
the pronotum is entirely yellow. These I propose to regard as a distinct variety. 

Savaii :— Safune : Rain Forest, 2,000-4,000 ft., 1 $ (type), 8.V.1924 (Bryan) ; 
Tuasivi : 1 specimen, 9.ii.l924. 

Tutuila : — Pago Pago : 1 specimen, 9.ixJ923 (Swezey). 

* Acanthohrachys (Fieber 1861) Breddin 1905, nec Jekel 1857 (Coleoptera), vide Reuter, Mem. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., XV, p. 125, 1908. 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 



157 



58. Reduviolus capsiformis (Germ.). 

Nobis capsiformis Germar, Silbermann Rev. Ent., V, p. 132, 1837. 
Reduviolus innotatus B. White, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), XX, p. 112, 1877. 
Reduviolus, sp. ? Kirkaldy, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, XXXIII, p. 366, 1908. 
Reduviolus capsiformis Reuter, Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg., XV, p. 114, 1908 (synonymy). 
Reduviolus capsiformis Kirkaldy, Faun. Hawaii, Hemipt., Suppl., p. 546, 1909. 

Samoa : — 1 adult and 1 larva, iii.-viii. 1921 (O'Comior). 

Upolu : — Apia : 8 specimens, on " Bermuda grass and Sporobolus," 
12.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder) ; 1 specimen, i.l924, 2 specimens, ii.l924, 3 
specimens, iii.1924, 1 specimen, vi. 1924 ; Malololelei : 1 specimen, 24.ii. 1924 ; 
2,000 ft., 1 specimen, 12. iii.1924, 1 specimen, 25.iv.1924, 4 specimens, vi.l924, 

1 specimen, 20. vi. 1924, 1 specimen, 28. vi. 1924, 1 specimen, 21.iv.l925, 1 specimen, 
28. xi. 1924, 2 specimens, vii.1925 (Wilder) ; Lalomanu : 1 specimen, xi.l924 ; 
Afiamalu : 1 specimen, 11. vii.1925 (Wilder). 

Savaii : — 1,000 ft., 1 specimen, 21. xi. 1924 ; Tuasivi : 1 specimen, 9.ii.l924 ; 
Safune : 1 specimen, 4.V.1924 (Bryan) ; Lower Forest, 1,000-2,000 ft., 2 speci- 
mens, 5.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Tutuila :--Pago Pago : 0-300 ft., 4 specimens, iv.l918 (Kellers) ; 760-900 ft., 

2 specimens, iv.l918 (Kellers) ; 4 specimens, 20.ix.l923 (Swezey and Wilder). 

Manua Is. : — Tau : 2 specimens, " grass," 27. ix. 1923 (Swezey). 

The Samoan specimens agree very well with the type of the Hawaiian R. 
innotatus B. White, which is apparently teneral. Reuter has identified this 
species with the almost cosmopolitan R. capsiformis Germar. With this I 
am not entirely in agreement, for, although as pointed out by Reuter this species 
is very variable, it seems more than probable that several subspecies, at least, 
are involved. Apart from the question of pterygo-dimorphism, the Pacific 
Island forms differ markedly from the typical Mediterranean and South African 
form in the much smaller size of the membrane. The hind femur and the second 
antennal segment in the Samoan specimens are distinctly longer than in Hawaiian 
specimens, although the shape of the male parameres is the same. 

In the Pacific region this species occurs in Hawaii, Fiji, Tonga, Savage Is. 
(Nine), Tahiti and Raiatea. 

59. Reduviolus annulipes, sp. n. (Text-fig. 28). 

Colour. — and Head greyish pubescent, with a broad dark brown stripe 
down each side in front of and behind the eye and including buccula and antenni- 



158 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



ferous tubercle ; a non-pubescent quadrangular spot above each ocellus, basal 
half of clypeus, and eyes brown ; rostrum fulvous yellow the second segment 
shading to brown at base, the first shining brown ; labrum and apical half of 
clypeus, fulvous ; first antennal segment brown, with a median annulation 




Text-fig. 28.' — ■Reduviolus annulipes, sp. n. : a, liemielytron ; b, dorsal view of head, pronotum 
and sciitellum ; c, d, and e, anterior intermediate and posterior legs, showing colour pattern ; 
/, lateral view of male pygophor, showing left paramere. 

yellow and a broad apical aniuilation fulvous orange ; second segment fulvous 
with base and a subapical annulation fuscous, ajjex pale fulvous ; third and 
fourth segments greyish pubescent basal half of third fulvous, its extreme base 
pallid. Anterior lobe of pronotum brown with n. greyish pubescent pattern, 
the apical margin of collar and lateral carinae yellow ; posterior lobe sordid 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTBRA. 



169 



yellow, with a definite fuscous pattern consisting of three irregular longitudinal 
stripes and a spot over each humeral angle ; lateral margin and posterior carinate 
margin yellow. Propleuron sordid yellow more or less covered with a broad 
longitudinal brown stripe extending from anterior margin of collar, over base 
of acetabula to posterior margin, the posterior lateral angle yellow. Scutellum 
fuscous with a yellow V-shaped elevation on apical two-thirds. Mesopleuron 
fuscous with an irregular whitish pubescent area ; acetabula pallid. Meta- 
pleuron pale yellow internally, dark fuscous externally. Hemielytra fulvous 
yellow with variable and irregular fuscous markings and the discal and apical 
cell of corium largely fuscous, corium sometimes with a distinct subapical 
fuscous band ; veins, especially apically, whitish-yellow ; apical angle of corium 
beyond transverse fuscous band pale yellow ; membrane smoky, the veins 
infuscate. Coxae and trochanters yellow ; anterior femur sordid yellow with 
an apical and a broad irregular subapical fuscous annulation, its sides each with 
a row of oblique convexly elevated shining brown spots ; anterior tibia yellow 
with apex, two median and one sub-basal fuscous annulations, minute spines 
black ; middle femora pale yellow with an apical and two median annulations 
and one or two spots towards base, fuscous ; middle tibia with an apical, two 
median and a sub-basal annulation fuscous. Hind femora and tibiae pale yellow, 
sometimes shaded with fulvous, each with an apical, five median and a sub-basal 
annulation, fuscous ; all tarsi fuscous with apices of second segments pale. 
Venter fulvous yellow, with a dark shining brown stripe down each side within 
the connexivum and expanding apically to form large spots on the seventh and 
ninth ventrites '; basal half of ovipositor brown, apical half yellow ; apical lateral 
margin of ninth ventrite whitish-yellow ; connexivum brown, tinted with bright 
red, each segment with a small elongate yellow spot in middle around spiracle ; 
dorsum brown, the basal tergites yellow. 

Structure. — Narrow elongate, more than five times as long as wide across 
base of pronotum. Head exserted ; beyond eyes, elongate with sides more 
or less parallel gradually converging anteriorly, nearly twice as long as postocular 
region (15 : 8) ; eye equal in width to frons between eyes, and about four-fifths 
as long as ante-ocular region of head (12 : 15) ; rostrum extending to meso- 
sternum ; relative lengths of segments 9 : 33 : 32 : 13 ; first antennal segment 
slender, distinctly longer than head (48 : 35) ; relative lengths of antennal seg- 
ments ($) 48 : 70 : 70 : 45. Pronotum more than twice as wide at base as at 
pronotal collar (46 : 19) ; the anterior lobe about two and a half times (18 : 7), 



160 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



, the posterior lobe three times (21) as long as anterior collar. Scutellum equi- 
lateral ; disc strongly impressed and surrounded apically by a V-shaped ridge. 
Hemielytra extending well beyond apex of abdomen, membrane with three basal 
cells containing auxiliary veinlets, wing cell with a distinct hamus arising from 

^ connecting vein close to decurrent vein. Front femora moderately incrassate, 
unarmed, beneath densely pilose, distinctly longer than head and pronotum 
together, and slightly longer than tibiae. Middle and hind legs long and slender, 
the hind femur extending slightly beyond apex of abdomen. Relative lengths 
of femur, tibia and tarsus : front leg 85 : 75 : 14 ; middle leg 85 : 83 : 14 ; hind 
leg 120 : 150 : 17. Venter strongly delimited from connexivum by a deep 
furrow ; sternites without lateral glabrous spots ; left paramere in male similar 
in general shape to that of R. capsiformis but much longer and narrower and 
comparatively much smaller. 

Total length : 8-5, $ 9-5 mm. 

Upolu : — Malololelei : 2 adult specimens and 1 larva, 24.ii.1924, 2 specimens, 
25.ii.1924, 3 specimens, 10.iii.l924, 4 specimens, vi.l924, 2 specimens, 17.vi.l924, 
2 specimens, 20.vi.l924, 1 specimen, 28. vi. 1924, 1 specimen, 14-30. vi. 1924, 3 
specimens (including type), 28. xi. 1924, 1 specimen, l.i.l925, 4 specimens, 21. iv.l925. 

Savaii : — Salailua : 1 specimen, 19.V.1924 (Bryan). 

Very variable in colouring but readily distinguished from all other species 
of Reduviolus by the multiannulate femora and tibiae and the narrow elongate 
form. Apparently most closely related to the subgenus Stenonabis Renter, but 
differing in origin of wing cell hamus and in the longer pronotum with non- 
punctate posterior lobe. 

Family Cimicidae. 

60. Cimex hemlpterus Fabr. 

Cimex hemipterus Fabricius, Syst. Rhyng., p. 113, 1803. 

Acanthia rotundatus Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (2), X, p. 540, pi. 16 fig. 2, 1852. 

Acanthia macrocephala Fieber, Europ. Hemipt.., p. 135, 1861. 

Klinophilos horrifer Kirkaldy, Bull. Liverpool Mus., II, p. 45, 1899. 

Cimex hemipterus Horvath, Congres International Zoologie, Monaco, p. 297, 1914. 

Clinocoris hemipterus Rothschild, Bull. Ent. Research, IV, p. 345, 1914. 

Cimex rotundatus Buxton and Hopkins, Researches in Polynesia and Melanesia, 1-TV, p. 54, 1927. 

Upolu : — Apia : 2 1 ^ and 3 larvae, " in Chinese quarters," x.1925. 
Distributed throughout the Ethiopian, Mascarene, and Oriental Regions, in 



1 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 161 

wMch. vast area, according to Horvath, it is an autochthonous species. In New 
Guinea it is found only in the dweUings of Europeans, Chinese and Malays, and 
has probably been introduced within historic times. In the Antilles and Brazil 
C. hemipterus occurs only locally, and Horvath has suggested that it was introduced 
into America during the negro slave-trade period. 

Recorded from New Hebrides by Buxton and Hopkins, and apparently 
replaced in Hawaii by C. lectularius L. 



LIST OF TEXT-FIGURES. 

Fig. 1. Glaucias samoanus, sp. n. : a, terminal view of male pygophor, showing parameres ; 

h, ventral view of female genital plates. 
Fig. 2. Riptortus insularis, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotiim and scutellum ; 6, terminal 

view of male pygophor. 
Fig. 3. Riptortus insularis, sp. n. : lateral view of head and thorax. 

Fig. 4. Riptortus tutuilensis, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellum ; b, hind 
leg. 

Fig. 5. Riptortus tutuilensis, sp. n. : lateral view of head and thorax. 
Fig. 6. Chiastoplonia pygmaea, gen. et. sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 

Fig. 7. Pictinus pacificus, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellum ; h, antenna ; 

c, ventral view of abdomen, showing position of spiracles. 
Fig. 8. Ctenoneurus samoanus, sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 
Fig. 9. Carventus kirkaldyi, sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 

Fig. 10. Protacanthus pacificus, sp. n. : lateral view of head and thorax, showing median pronotal 
keel. 

Fig. 11. Nesostethus niger, sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted;. 

Fig. 12. Nysius pacificus, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellum ; b, lateral 

view of head and thorax ; c, hemielytron. 
Fig. 13. Germalus samoanus, sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 

Fig. 14. Lateral view of head and thorax of : a, Germalus samoanus, sp. n. ; b, Germalus buxtoni, 
sp. n. 

Fig. 15. Germalus buxtoni, sp. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 

Fig. 16. Dorsal view of apical abdominal tergite overlapping male pygophor : a, Germalus 

samoanus, sp. n. ; b, Germalus buxtoni, sp. n. 
Fig. 17. Neocrompus kellersi, sp. n. : a, dorsal view (legs omitted) ; b, lateral view of head and 

prothorax. 

Fig. 18. Dorsal view (legs omitted) of : a, Orthaea ventralis, sp. n ; b, Orthaea puberula, sp. n. 
Fig. 19. Orthaea puberula, sp. n. : a, fore femur and tibia, ,^ ; Orthaea ventralis, sp. n. : b, fore 

femur and tibia, $ ; c, lateral view of abdomen, showing shape of ventral pallid spot. 
Fig. 20. Bryanella longicornis, gen. et. sp. n. : a, dorsal view (legs omitted) ; b, lateral view of 

head and thorax. 
Fig. 21. Cligenes swezeyi, s-p. n. : dorsal view (legs omitted). 

Fig. 22. Idiocysta hackeri, gen. et. sp. n. : a, dorsal view (antennae and legs omitted) ; b, lateral 
view of head and pronotum. 



162 



INSECTS OF SAMOA. 



Fig. 23. Gardena (jeniculata, sp, n. : a, dorsal view of head and pronotum ; h, lateral view of 

same ; c, anterior leg. 
Fig. 24. Luteva insolida B. White, hemielytron. 

Fig. 25. Empicoris (Dictynna) nitidicollis, subgen. et. wp. n. : a, lateral view of head and thorax ; 

h, hemielytron ; c, anterior leg ; d, ventral view of base of abdomen, showing 

straight posterior margin of first ventrite. 
Fig. 26. Polytoxus similis, sp. n. : a, lateral view of head and pronotum ; b, hemielytron ; 

c, terminal view of (J abdomen. 
Fig. 27. Saslrapada hophinsi, sp. n. : a, dorsal view of head, pronotum and scutellum ; b, lateral 

view of head and thorax ; c, anterior leg ; d, lateral view of apex of J' abdomen ; 

e, dorsal view of same ; /, hemielytron. 
Fig. 28. Reduviolus annulipes, sp. n. : a, hemielytron ; b, dorsal view of head, pronotum and 

scutellum ; c, d, and e, anterior intermediate and posterior legs, showing colour 

pattern ; /, lateral view of male pygophor, showing left paramere. 




FEINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BBCCLES. 



INSECTS OF SAMOA 



AND OTHER SAMOAN TERRESTRIAL 
ARTHROPODA 



LIST OF PARTS AND SYSTEM OF PUBLICATION :- 

Part 1. Orthoptera and Dermaptera. 

„ 11. Hemiptera. 

„ III. Lepidoptera. 

„ IV. Coleoptera. 

V. Hymenoptera. 

„ VI. Diptera. 

„ VII. Other Orders of Insects. 

„ VIII. Terrestrial Arthropoda other than Insects. 

„ IX. Summary and Index, 

The work is published at intervals in the form of numbered fascicles. 
Although individual fascicles may contain contributions by more than one 
author, each fascicle is so arranged as to form an integral portion of one or 
pther of the Parts specified above. 



List of Fascicles issued to 26th July, 1930 

Insects of Samoa and other Samoan Terrestrial Arthropoda. Maps 1 and 
2 (in envelope). 1927, 4to. 6d. 

Part I. Orthoptera and Dermaptera. 

Fasc. 1. Dermaptera. By Dr. Alfredo Borelli. Pp. 1-8. 1928. 4to. 1j. 
Fasc.2. Orthoptera. By Dr. L. Chopard. 51 text-figures. Pp. 9-58. 1929.4tOi 5s. 

Part II. Hemiptera. 

Fasc. 1. Fulgoroidea. By F. Muir. 25 text-figures. Psyllidee (Chermidee). By 
Prof. D. L. Crawford. 4 text-figures. G)ccidae, Aphididae and Aleyrodidee. 
By F. Laing. M A , B.Sc. 3 text-figures. Pp. 1-45. 1927, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 2. Cercopidae. By V. Lallemand, M.D. 10 text-figures. Cicadidae. By 
J. G. Myers, ScD. 22 text-figures. Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Heteroptera. 
ByProf.TeisoEsaki. 6 text -figures. Pp. 47-80. 1928. 4to, 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 3. Heteroptera. By W. E. China, BA. (Cantab.)- 28 text-figures. 
Pp. 81-162. 1930, 4to. 55. 

Part III. Lepidoptera. 

Fasc. 1 . Butterflies of Samoa and some neighbouring Island-groups. By G. H. E. 
Hopkins, M.A.. F.E.S, 1 text-figure and 4 plates. Pp. 1-64. 1927. 4to. 5i. 

Fasc.2. Micro-Lepidoptera. By Edward Meyrick, BA, F.R.S. Pp. 65-116. 
1927, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 3. Geometridae. By Louis B. Prout, F.E.S. 2 text-figures and 1 plate. 
Pp. 117-168, 1928. 4to. 2s. 6d. 



Date Issued. 
26th February, 1927. 

ISthJuly, 1928. 
26th January, 1929. 



25th June, mi. 

23rd June, 1928. 
26th July, 1930. 

9th April, 1927. 
28th May. 1927. 
24th March, 1928. 



List of Fascicles issued to 26th July, 1930 {continued) :- 



Part IV. Coleoptera. 

Fasc. 1 . Carabidae. By H. E. Andrewes. 9 text-figures. Dytiscidae. By A. 
Zimmermann. 2 text-figures. Staphylinidae. By M. Cameron, M.B. 2 text- 
figures, Hydrophilidae. By A. d'Orcnymont. 1 text-figure Clavicomia and 
Lamellicomia. By G.J. Arrow. 13 text-figures. Pp. T-66. 1927, 4to. 3s. 

Fasc. 2. Heteromera, Bostrychoidea, Malacodermata and Buprestidee. By K. G. 
Blair, B. Sc. 14 text-figures. Elateridae. By R. H. van Zwaluwenberg. 10 
text-figures._ Melasidae (Eucnemidae)._ By E. Fleutiaux.^ Cerambycidae. By 
Chr. Aurivillius. I plate. Brentnidae. By R. Kleine. 4 text-figures. 
Anthribidffi. By Karl Jordan, Ph.D. 1 1 text-figures Proterhinidae. By 
R. C. L. Perkins. D.Sc.. F.R.S. Pp. 67-174. 1928. 4to. 5.. 

Fasc. 3. Throscidae. By K. G. Blair, B.Sc. 1 text-figure. CKrysomelidae. 
By S. Maulik. M.A. 18 text-figures. Pp. 175-215. 1929, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 4. Platypodidae and Scolytidae. By C. F. C. Beeson, D.Sc. 13 text- 
figures. Pp. 217-248. 1929, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Part V. Hymenoptera. 

Fasc. 1. Apoidea, Sphecoidea, and Vespoidea. By R. C. L. Perkins, D.Sc., 
F.R5., and L. Evelyn Cheesman, F.E.S., FJZ.S. 12 text-figures. Larridae. 
By Francis X.'Williams. 12 text-figures. Formicidae. By Dr. F. Santschi. 
9 text-figures. Pp. 1-58. 1928, 4to. 5*. 

Part VI. Diptera. 

Fasc. 1. Streblidas and Nycteribiidae. By L. Falcoz. 7 text-figures. Hippo- 
boscidee. By G. F. Ferris. 6 text-figures. Pp. 1-21. 1927, 4to. 2s. W. 

Fasc. 2. Nematocera, By F. W. Edwards, MA. 20 text-figures. Cecidomyiine. 
By H. F. Barnes, BA. Ph.D. 4 text-figures. Pp. 23-10)8. 1928, 4to. 5*. 

Fasc. 3. Stratiomyiidae, Tabanidas and Asilida. By Gertrude Ricardo. 6 text- 
figures. Larvae of Stratiomyiids. By P. A; Buxton, M.A. 2 text-figures. 
Dolichopodidae. By C. G. Lamb, Sc.D. 8 text-figures. Sarcophagidae. By 
P. A. Buxton, M.A. 9 text-figures. Muscids. By J. R. Malloch. 
Pp. 109-175. 1929. 4to. 5*. 

Fasc. 4. Empididae and Pipunculidae. By J. E. Collin. 7 text-figures. 
Syrphidae. By Frank M. Hull. 2 text-figures. Clusiidae (Heteroneuridae) 
and Sapromyzidae. By J. R. Malloch. 6 text-figures. Pp. 177-213. 1929, 
4to. 2s. 6d. 



Fasc. 5. Ortalidae. By J. R. Malloch. 6 text-figures. 
J. R. Malloch. Pp. 215-237. 1930, 4to. 2s. 



Calliphoridae. By 



Part VI L Other Orders of Insects. 

Fasc. I. Isoptera: Family Termitidae. By Gerald F. Hill. 14 text-figures and 
1 plate. Odonata. By Lt.-Col. F. C. Fraser, I.M5., F.ES. 5 text-figures. 
Pp. 1-44. 1927, 4to 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 2. Plectoptera. By R. J. TiUyard, ScD. (Cantab.). F.R.S., and J. A. 
Lestage. 2 text-figures. Siphonaptera. By P. A. Buxton, MA. Thysanoptera. 
By Richard S.Bagnall,F.R.S.E.,F.L3. 6 text-figures. Pp. 45-76. 1928,4to. 
2$. 6d, 

Fasc. 3. Mallophaga. By J. Waterston, DJSc. 2 text-figures. Anoplura. By 
P. A. Buxton, MA. Trichoptera. By Martin E. Mosely. 1 figure. 
Neuroptera. By P. Esben-Petersen. I text-figure and 2 plates. Apterygota. 
By George H. Carpenter, D. Sc. 32 text-figures. Pp. 77- 116. 1928, 4to. 2s. 6d. 

Part VIII. Terrestrial Arthropoda other than Insects. 

Fasc. 1. Isopoda Terrestria. By Harold G. Jackson, DSz. 2 plates. Scor- 
pionoidea. By P. A. Buxton, MA. Pseudo-scorpiones. By A. Kastner. 11 
text-figures. Acarina. By Stanley Hirst. 2 text-figures. Pp. 1-27. 1927, 
4to. 2s. 6d. 

Fasc. 2. Myriopodcn (Myriopoda). By C. Attems. 4 text-figures. Araign^es 
(Araneida). ByDr.LucicnBerland. 79text.figures. Pp. 29-78. 1929, 4to. 2s. ed. 



Date Issued. 



\9th December, \927. 



25th February, 1928. 
23rd February, 1929. 
22nd June, 1929. 



25th February, 1928. 

23rd July, 1927. 
23rd June, 1928. 

UthMay, 1929. 

27 th July, 1929. 
22nd March, 1930. 

2M May, 1927. 
23rd June, 1928. 
2Sth July.]\92B. 



23rd July, 1927. 
22nd June, 1929.